The Twenty-first Amendment to the U.S. Constitution reads:
Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
The Twenty-first Amendment was proposed on February 20, 1933, and ratified on December 5, 1933. It is the only amendment to repeal another amendment, the Eighteenth, and the only one to be ratified by state conventions rather than by state legislatures.
Repeal of the eighteenth amendment ended fourteen years of prohibition, a failed national experiment that sought to eliminate the consumption of intoxicating liquors. Though consumption was reduced, federal and state law enforcement officials could not prevent the illegal manufacture and sale of "bootleg" alcohol. organized crime profited from the ban on alcohol, which enabled criminals such as Chicago gangster al capone to become multi-millionaires. Critics of Prohibition argued that the increase in crime and lawlessness offset any gains from reducing the consumption of liquor.
Prohibition was supported most strongly in rural areas. In urban areas enforcement was difficult. Cities had large populations of immigrants who did not see anything morally wrong with consuming alcohol. In the early 1930s, as production and sales of illegal liquor continued to rise, the onset of the Great Depression led to calls for repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment. A legalized liquor industry would provide more jobs at a time when millions were out of work.
At its national convention in 1932, the democratic party adopted a platform plank calling for repeal. The landslide Democratic victory of 1932 signaled the end of Prohibition. In February 1933 a resolution proposing the Twenty-first Amendment was introduced in Congress; it contained a provision requiring ratification by state conventions rather than by state legislatures. Though Article V of the Constitution authorizes this ratification method, it had never been used. Supporters of repeal did not want the state legislatures, which generally were dominated by rural legislators supportive of Prohibition, to vote against ratification.
During 1933 thirty-eight states elected delegates to state conventions to consider the amendment. Almost three-quarters of the voters supported repeal in these elections. Therefore, it was not surprising that the ratification conventions certified the results and ratified the Twenty-first Amendment on December 5, 1933.
Section 2 of the amendment gives states the right to prohibit the transportation or importation of intoxicating liquors. Many states enacted their own prohibition laws in the 1930s, but all had been repealed by 1966. The regulation of liquor is now primarily a local issue.
Brown, Everett Somerville, compiler. 2003. Ratification of the Twenty-First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States: State Convention Records and Laws. Clark, N.J.: Lawbook Exchange.
"Twenty-First Amendment." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/twenty-first-amendment
"Twenty-First Amendment." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/twenty-first-amendment
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The year 1933 marked a benchmark in U.S. constitutional history. The Twenty-first Amendment was enacted. It is the only constitutional amendment to repeal another amendment. With its ratification, the Eighteenth Amendment's mandate to eliminate liquor consumption in the United States was repealed.
Fourteen years after it began, Prohibition ended. Although the Eighteenth Amendment did succeed in reducing the amount of alcohol consumed, it failed in its goal of eliminating the consumption of intoxicating liquors in the United States. Many people continued to imbibe. Taking advantage of the legal ban on alcohol, organized crime helped develop a black market in "bootleg" alcohol to meet continuing public demand. Criminals like Chicago gangster Al Capone (1899-1947) became multimillionaires. In the early 1930s, production and sales of "bootleg" liquor continued to rise and the Great Depression began. Prohibition was difficult to enforce in urban areas, and critics argued the increase in crime resulting from the ban offset reductions in consumption. In addition, millions of citizens were out of work and legalizing the liquor industry would create more jobs. Calls for the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment were gaining ground.
During the 1932 Democratic national convention, the party platform included a call for the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment. In the presidential election of that year, the Democrats won a landslide victory. In February 1933, the Twenty-first Amendment was proposed in Congress. It specified the amendment must be ratified by state conventions rather than state legislatures so that legislators (who were predominantly from rural areas that supported Prohibition) could not vote against ratification.
Before 1933 was over, the Twenty-first Amendment had passed. Prohibition was officially over. The amendment did give states the right to prohibit the importation or transportation of intoxicating liquors, and many states did enact their own prohibition laws in the 1930s. By 1966, however, all state prohibition laws were repealed.
See also: Black Market, Eighteenth Amendment, Prohibition
"Twenty-First Amendment." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/twenty-first-amendment
"Twenty-First Amendment." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. . Retrieved April 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/twenty-first-amendment