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A term applied in a variety of ways by non-African writers to describe various features and sometimes even the whole of the system of African traditional tribal religion and/or magic practice. It is a French word meaning "little doll." Like fetishism, it is a term that has been abandoned in the contemporary discussion of African religion.


King, Noel Q. African Cosmos: An Introduction to Religion in Africa. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1986.

Parrinder, Geoffrey. African Traditional Religion. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1962.

Peek, Philip M., ed. African Divination Systems. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.