Laplace's equation The sum of the rates of change of a potential field gradient in three perpendicular directions is equal to zero. For a potential function U(x,y,z), Laplace's equation states: ▿2U = δ2U/δx2 + δ2U/δy2 + δ2U/δz2 = 0, where ▿ is the Laplace operator.
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