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Zabarella, Jacopo


Renaissance philosopher; b. Padua, Sept. 7, 1533; d. there, Oct. 25, 1589. A count of the Holy Roman Empire and a citizen of the Venetian Republic, he was professor of logic and natural philosophy at Padua from 1564 until his death. His is the terminal and most lucid development of Renaissance aristotelianism, especially in logic. Influenced in part by humanism and by the Latin averroism stemming from john of jandun, Zabarella wrote rigorous commentaries on Aristotle's text and separate systematic treatises on his philosophy. His commentaries on the Posterior Analytics, Physics, and De Anima have been used by modern classicists, especially W. D. Ross, in editing and interpreting Aristotle. His collected logical treatises, the Opera logica (Venice 1578, 2d ed. 1586), contain, noteworthily, two books on the nature of logic and four on philosophic or scientific methodology, the De methodis. The latter criticizes the untidy neoGalenian theory of methods, reducing them to two, the analytic, or resolutive, and the synthetic, or compositive. Also noteworthy is his treatise De regressu, a sort of theory of verification in physical science. His collected natural treatises, the De rebus naturalibus (Venice 1590), include the earlier De naturalis scientiae constitutione (1586) and, also of note, two books on primary matter; four on the discovery of the first mover; one on the agent sense (a problem bequeathed the Italians by John of Jandun); one each on the human mind, the intelligible species, and the agent mind; and one on methodology, the De ordine intelligendi. Zabarella's natural philosophy is of considerable historical interest, but his theories of logic and method are, in addition, of permanent systematic importance. Zabarella's transmontane impact was greater than his immediate influence upon his fellow Italians. galileo cites him only twice, once in general approval, once to oppose him on primary matter. Despite the Lyons edition of his logic in 1587, his influence in France seems negligible. But in Germany, thanks to the fourth edition of his logic (Basel 1594) and the fact that reforming theologians had been students of his at Padua, he was cited among the moderns as of at least equal authority with P. melanchthon, and was rivaled only by the Portuguese Jesuit P. da fonseca. He influenced J. Jungius (15871657), Leibniz's professor of logic, and was avidly studied by G. W. leibniz himself, A. G. Baumgarten (171462), and others.

See Also: renaissance philosophy.

Bibliography: Works. De natura logicae, Eng. d. d. runes, ed., Classics in Logic (New York 1962). Literature. w. f. edwards, Enciclopedia filosofica, 4 v. (VeniceRome 1957) 4:181113; The Logic of Iacopo Zabarella (Doctoral Diss. Columbia U. 1961); "The Averroism of Iacopo Zabarella" Atti del XII Congresso Internazionale de Filosofia 9 (1960) 91107. j. j. glanville, "Zabarella and Poinsot on the Object and Nature of Logic," in Readings in Logic, ed. r. houde (Dubuque 1958). n. w. gilbert, Renaissance Concepts of Method (New York 1960).

[j. j. glanville]

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