Skip to main content

Spanheim, Ezechiel and Friedrich

SPANHEIM, EZECHIEL AND FRIEDRICH

Ezechiel, Calvinist savant and diplomat; b. Geneva, Dec. 7, 1629; d. London, Nov. 7, 1710. During his theological studies at Leiden, where his father had been invited as a professor in 1642, Spanheim developed a scholarly interest in antiquities. He became a professor of eloquence at Geneva (1651), but resigned his academic post to be a tutor at the ducal court at Heidelberg (165661). His study Discours sur les affaires d'Allemagne et sur le vicariat le l'Empire involved him in the controversy over the vicariate of Palatinate-Bavaria, and he was sent to Rome to represent the Palatinate (166165). His close affiliation with the scholarly society sponsored by Queen Christina of Sweden was a decisive factor in his scientific development. While at Rome he published his eminent work on numismatics, Dissertationes de praesentia et usu numismatum antiquorum (1664). This was followed by a long period of diplomatic service: between 1665 and 1680 he was the Palatinate ambassador in Paris, Cologne, and London; he served the Brandenburg court at Paris (168090 and 16971702) and at London (170210). Spanheim as a politician was without distinction. Though he performed his office with integrity, he lacked the ambition of a statesman (Löwe). At the outbreak of the Franco-Palatine war, he was recalled to Berlin (169097), where he worked for refugee Huguenots, founding a society, named after him, that became the precursor of the Berlin Academy of Sciences. During these years he corresponded with G. W. Leibniz on the subject of union between Lutherans and Calvinists and wrote Juliani imperatoris opera quae supersunt omnia (1696), Ezechielis Spanheim in Callimachi hymnos observationes (1697), Orbis romanus seu ad constitutionem Antonii imperatoris exercitationes duae (1697).

Friedrich, Calvinist theologian and historian; b. Geneva, May 1, 1632; d. Leiden, May 18, 1701. As did his brother Ezechiel, Friedrich, too, studied theology in Leiden, where he received an M.A. degree on Oct.17, 1548. He taught theology at the University of Heidelberg from 1655 until 1670, when he was invited to succeed Johannes Cocceius (160369) in the chair of theology at Leiden. In his strong defense of Calvinist orthodoxy against arminianism, he wrote Dissertatio theologica de quinquarticulanis controversiis pridem in Belgio agitatis, defending the decisions of the Synod of Dort (161819). (see confessions of faith, protestant.) The polemical disputes with Thomas Hobbes, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, and Baruch Spinoza produced his De novissimis circa res sacras in Belgio dissidiis epistola ad amicum responsoria (1677), where his theological position shows the effects of the conciliatory Academy of Saumur. He affirms the differentiation between fundamental and non-fundamental creed formulas and displays a relaxation in his earlier rigid orthodoxy. In 1671 Spanheim was appointed to the professorship of ecclesiastical history and composed historical works, of which three are of special merit: Summa historiae ecclesiasticae (1689), Geographia sacra et ecclesiastica (1698), and Brevis introductio ad historiam sacram utriusque testamenti ac praecipue christianam.

Bibliography: Ezechiel. v. lÖwe, Ein Diplomat und Gelehrter, Ezechiel Spanheim (Historische Studien 160; Berlin 1924). e. muret, Geschichte der französischen Kolonie in Brandenburg-Preussen (Berlin 1885). a. von harnack, Geschichte der königlich-preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin 1900). h.v. petersdorff, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie 35:5059. a. m. koeniger, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. m. buchberger, 10 v. (Freiburg 193038) 9:702703. w. delius, Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 7 v. (3d ed. Tübingen 195765) 6:223224. Friedrich. Opera, 3 v. (Lyons 170103). o. ritschl, Dogmengeschichte des Protestantismus, 4 v. (Göttingen 190827) v.4. p. tschackert, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie 35: 6061. l. zscharnack and o. weber, Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 7 v. (3d ed. Tübingen 195765) 6:224.

[j. krasenbrink]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Spanheim, Ezechiel and Friedrich." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Oct. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Spanheim, Ezechiel and Friedrich." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 23, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spanheim-ezechiel-and-friedrich

"Spanheim, Ezechiel and Friedrich." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spanheim-ezechiel-and-friedrich

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.