Skip to main content
Select Source:

Dort, Synod of

DORT, SYNOD OF

DORT, SYNOD OF. Convened in 1618 in the Dutch city of Dordrecht, the Synod of Dort met to settle the Arminian, or Remonstrant, controversy within the Reformed Church of the Netherlands. This controversy, which had developed over the course of a decade, centered around the Calvinist doctrine of predestination. Other issues, including the precise confessional status of the Belgic Confession (an early doctrinal statement of the Reformed churches in the Low Countries) in the church and the relationship between civil and ecclesiastical authority, also played a role in the controversy. The synod included delegates from the Dutch Reformed Church as well as representatives from other Reformed churches throughout Europe. With the presence of foreign delegates, the synod took on an international character and represented an important step in defining and codifying seventeenth-century Calvinism. Meeting over the course of 180 sessions, the delegates examined and rejected the central doctrines of the Arminian party and confirmed the doctrine of double predestination along with a number of its corollaries, including the sovereignty of God, irresistible grace, and the perseverance of the saints. These doctrinal decisions, formulated in the Canons of Dort, gave the Reformed Church of the Netherlands greater coherence but also made it clear that the Arminian position would not be accepted within the Dutch Reformed Church. After the synod ended in May 1619, the Remonstrants were expelled from the church and faced persecution within the Dutch Republic. The Canons of Dort became one of the confessional standards of the Dutch Reformed Church and gained general acceptance throughout the Reformed churches of Europe as a clear expression of Calvinist orthodoxy.

See also Calvinism ; Dutch Republic ; Oldenbarneveldt, Johan van .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Benedict, Philip. Christ's Churches Purely Reformed: A Social History of Calvinism. New Haven, 2002. See Chapter 10 (especially pp. 297317).

Israel, Jonathan. The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 14771806. Oxford and New York, 1995. See Chapters 1620 (especially pp. 421477).

Michael A. Hakkenberg

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Dort, Synod of." Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Dort, Synod of." Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/dort-synod

"Dort, Synod of." Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. . Retrieved September 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/dort-synod

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Synod of Dort

Synod of Dort (conference to prepare doctrine for Protestant Church): see DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Synod of Dort." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Synod of Dort." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/synod-dort

"Synod of Dort." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved September 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/synod-dort

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Dort, Synod of

Dort, Synod of: see DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Dort, Synod of." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Dort, Synod of." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/dort-synod

"Dort, Synod of." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved September 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/dort-synod

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.