MELNIKOFF, AVRAHAM (1892–1960), Israeli sculptor. Born in Russia, Melnikoff studied in Vienna and the U.S. He came to Ereẓ Israel in 1918 and left for England in 1934, returning in 1960. Melnikoff was one of the pioneers of sculpture in modern Israel. His best-known work is his lion erected between Tel Ḥai and Kefar Giladi in memory of the defenders of Tel Hai (1926). This work, inspired by the sculpture of the ancient East, was the first modern monument in the country.