KHOREZM (Ar. Khwarizm ), formerly also called Khīva, district in N.W. Uzbekistan, on the lower course of the Amu Darya River (Oxus), S. of the Aral Sea. From references in the Chronicles of the Arab historian al-Ṭabarī (838–923) to the Arab conquest of Khorezm, and from related passages in the Cambridge Document (see *Khazars), S.P. Tolstov concluded that the religion of the people of Khorezm before the Arab conquest was a peculiar syncretistic form of Judaism and that this was imported to Khazaria by survivors from the Judaizing circles from Khorezm (i.e., around 712 c.e.). The refugees were responsible not only for the Khazar conversion to Judaism but also, through setting aside the original Khazar khāqān and making their chief, *Būlān, the real ruler of Khazaria, responsible for the establishment of the Khazar dual kingship. However, no firm evidence exists for these conclusions and some of Tolstov's details are manifestly incorrect: e.g., that R. Isaac Sangari, traditionally credited with playing an important part in the Khazars' conversion to Judaism, should be identified with Khāmjird (presumed = Khangiri, a name found on some Khorezmian coins), who is mentioned by al-Ṭabarī. Yet in al-Ṭabarī's account Khāmjird is evidently the name of a region and not of a person. Tolstov further held that at one time, apparently in the eighth century, Khazaria and Khorezm formed a single state. However, his evidence, based largely on coins, is again far from conclusive. Similarly doubtful is his projected second union between Khazaria and Khorezm in the 10th and 11th centuries.
Nevertheless it is clear that some relations existed between Khorezm and Khazaria. Caravans passed between the two countries, and a corps of some thousands of men who had originally come "from the neighborhood of Khwārizm" were stationed at the Khazar capital, *Atil, in the tenth century (according to the contemporary Arab historian, al-Masʿūdī).
M. ibn J. al-Ṭabarī, Annales: Tarīkh al-Rusul wal-Mulūk … ed. by M.J. de Goeje, ser. 1 pt. 5 (repr., 1964), 2903; ser. 2 pt. 2 (repr., 1964), 1142–43, 1236–41; cf. Fr. tr. by M.H. Zotenberg, 3 (1871), 573; 4 (1874), 177; Abu-Raiḥān al-Bīrūnī, The Chronology of Ancient Nations, tr. and ed. by c.e. Sachau (1879), 42; D.M. Dunlop, History of the Jewish Khazars (1954), index s.v.Khwārism; A.N. Poliak, Kazariyyah (1951), index; Baron, Social2, 3 (1954), 326; S. Szyszman, in: rhr, 152 (1957), 186–90; S.P. Tolstov, Po sledam drevnekharezmiyskoy tsivilizatsii (1948: Auf den Spuren der altchoresmischen Kultur, 1953), esp. chs. 9–10; idem, in: Sovetskaya etnografiya (1946), 94–104; M.I. Artamonov, Istoriya Khazar (1962), 283–7 and index; F. Altheim and R. Stiehl, in: Anales de historia antigua y medieval, 8 (1955), 56–61; idem, Finanzgeschichte der Spaetantike (1957), 264–72.
"Khorezm." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/khorezm
"Khorezm." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved February 20, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/khorezm
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.