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HERACLITUS ° (c. 500 b.c.e.), Greek philosopher. Philo asserts that Heraclitus stole his theory of opposites from Moses, but condemns him for not believing in a divine agency beyond the world. "Heraclitean" views on the constant motion of all things and on the origin of the world in fire were known to and sometimes opposed by medieval Jewish philosophers, e.g., *Saadiah Gaon.