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Heracleopolis (hərăk´lēŏp´əlĬs), ancient city, N Egypt, just S of El Faiyum. One of the oldest Egyptian cities, it was in existence before 3000 BC and was the capital (c.2155–c.2050) of the IX and X dynasties. The temple of the local god was enlarged in the XII dynasty and again by Ramses II.