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Hebraists, Christian

HEBRAISTS, CHRISTIAN

HEBRAISTS, CHRISTIAN (1100–1890). Factors governing gentile enterprises in Hebrew scholarship prior to the latest phase of more widespread secular attitudes may be distinguished as (1) motivation; (2) scholarly facilities; and (3) occasion; appreciation and assessment of these ought to suffice to set the achievements of gentile Hebraists in the context of the cultural background, including economics, geography, and politico-religious history relevant in each case. Such considerations ought to precede the arbitrary division into chronological periods. Since, however, time and place cannot be ignored, the section numbers that follow will be used for reference back.

(1) Motivation . (a) Study of the "Old" Testament and of New Testament origins and presuppositions. It was generally assumed that the Latin Bible (in whatever textform lay before the scholar) corresponded exactly, or at least virtually, with the Hebrew original; but (aa) in the later Middle Ages it was occasionally glimpsed, and from Erasmus' time more frequently appreciated, that the Hebrew Bible and its primary versions each have their own internal text history. (b) Christian commitment to self-identification with the religious experience of Jesus, the apostles and the early Church, which had been formed by reaction to the Hebrew Bible, the institutions, and at first also the language of the Synagogue. This sometimes led to (bb) interest in post-biblical Jewish institutions and their exploration through verbal contacts with Jews and later from literary sources. The synchronistic assumptions of traditional Judaism regarding the coevality from Sinai of the Pentateuch and the institutional elaboration of Jewish life at its contemporary phase of development (as the modern scholar would consider it) were not questioned, except insofar as the Gospels may obliquely query them. The Christian student thus regarded his Jewish informants as an organically living, though theologically fossilized specimen of the personal, domestic, social, jurisprudential, ethical, and speculative realities of ancient Ereẓ Israel. Curiosity was often aroused by the presence of a vigorous Jewish life as an enclave within Christendom and in part independent of its presuppositions. This also acted as a spur to (c) missionary activity toward the Jews, expressed not only in preaching but (cc) by engagement in controversial disputations. This could easily slip into (d) antisemitism, and the unscrupulous exploitation of rabbinic literature for purposes of anti-Jewish propaganda. (e) The revival of learning in the West, and a religious humanism, discovered anew the notion of the classical language and its literature, and as explained more fully below could accommodate Hebrew within the same intellectual approach. Finally, there is (f) incipient Orientalism, and the exploitation of the Semitic versions of the Bible both as a bridge to the vocabulary, etc., of the cognate languages and as themselves affording tools for the understanding of biblical and post-biblical Hebrew and Aramaic. Archaeological interest, which arose only recently, belongs in this category; its predecessor, the antiquarianism of pilgrim and traveler, falls properly within (b).

(2) Facilities for Scholarship . (a) The availability of sources of information regarding Hebrew, Jews, and Judaism of a traditional, approved, and so scholastically recognized caliber, either scattered through the patristic writings, the greatest of which were read and reread throughout the western Church, or encyclopedically arranged. (aa) The invention of printing affected not only the availability of these but also the diffusion of post-scholastic tools – grammars and dictionaries of Hebrew – that could supersede them. (b) The availability of teachers of Hebrew, locally or through migration or invitation: either Jews (who, though unsystematic, were mostly learned in their "lore"), or apostate Jews, or gentiles who had achieved a real competence. (c) Finally, institutions with libraries and endowments: originally the monasteries and the mendicant orders, and later the colleges and universities, ex hypothesi institutions for professed Christians, but at the latest stage sometimes modified so as to accept Jews as students and as teachers de jure.

(3) Occasion , i.e., individual or mass movement and its consequences in interaction. (a) Medieval Christian scholars migrated from northern Europe, especially to Italy and Spain, in search of learning. (b) Jewish scholars and informants moved on, driven by persecution, expulsion, or economic stress, but (bb) sometimes for less urgent causes, and occasionally with a preparedness to accept Christian baptism. (c) Conquests, treaties, revolutions, ecclesiastical settlement or realignment, or liberalizing reform, frequently forced (and occasionally attracted) large-scale movements of Jews. (d) A common language for Jewish tutor and gentile pupil (e.g., Norman French, or English), or mutual intelligibility through closeness of their respective dialects (e.g., Judeo-German and High German, or (Judeo-) Spanish and Latin).

The 12th Century

During the first Christian millennium the Church produced two substantial Hebraists, *Origen and *Jerome (i.e., Hieronymus), whose biblical commentaries were widely read. These, together with *Philo and *Josephus, constituted the basic sources of information on Hebrew and Jewish matters, their data often being taken over unacknowledged. Of the two streams of transmission one was encyclopedic and the other exegetical. Isidore of Seville (seventh century) drew heavily on Jerome in his Etymologies, which became the standard work of reference, being utilized in particular by Bede (d. 735) and successively by Hrabanus Maurus and the latter's pupil Walafrid Strabo (c. 808–49). The exegetical tradition is likewise one of plagiarization of the standard Christian commentaries on each book of the Bible.

By the early 12th century this material was being digested, often so succinctly as to reach almost catchword proportions, in the gloss that was becoming a marginal and interlinear accompaniment to manuscripts of the Latin Bible. The gloss also incorporated some matter taken from the encyclopedic stream, and was itself a literary undertaking suggested by the glossation of the standard Western authorities in medicine and law. It seems highly probable that this Christian technique of dealing with voluminous material reckoned to give the "approved" interpretation of an authoritative text was deliberately adopted by *Rashi (1030–1105) as the model for his own succinct running commentaries on the Hebrew Bible and the Talmud.

Rashi's commentaries, which spread rapidly and with acclaim from the Rhineland over Jewish Europe, constitute the first important occasion for a fresh advance in gentile Hebraism. They were not pitched at a specialist rabbinic readership, but were meant for the ordinary educated Jew, and it was generally the latter (or his apostate mutation) rather than the professional rabbi to whom the Christian student turned for help. Northern France, particularly Paris and its environs, formed the locale, and "Romance" the lingua franca, as testified by the Cistercian Stephen Harding (d. 1134). Motivation (1, a) was central, but (1, cc) was also operative; for religious controversy with the Synagogue, actively prosecuted by the early Church, had revived in Carolingian times. It stimulated a Jewish apologetic in the commentaries of Rashi and his successors, but little of substance is known about the Christian side in these early public disputations.

Christian initiative came from the abbey of St. Victor, 1110, and its daughter house in England, Wigmore. Hugh of St. Victor, who taught in Paris from about 1125 until 1141, set himself the task of rehabilitating the literal-historical sense of Scripture that had traditionally in Christian exegesis been reckoned the mere handmaid of allegory. His endeavor brought him to the Jews, and to the fallacious assumption – shared by his successors – that all interpretation deriving immediately from Jewish sources must, ex hypothesi, be "literal," including midrashic assertions which the Jews themselves would not have regarded too seriously as "facts": for the bare "letter" of Scripture was all that the Jews were deemed to possess. Hugh consulted them regarding their understanding of the Prophets; he also learned some Hebrew, sometimes preferring a literal Latin translation to the established Vulgate reading. Deriving his knowledge from oral informants, he quoted matter found in Rashi, Joseph *Kara, and *Samuel b. Meir (Rashbam). Hugh's pupil *Andrew, an Englishman, was likewise dependent on oral sources, whereas the latter's own pupil, Herbert of Bosham, who was still using oral informants, could clearly read Rashi for himself. But Bosham's commentary on Psalms never circulated. Andrew's extensive works, which cover the Pentateuch and utilized matter from his contemporary Joseph *Bekhor Shor, were widely read in monastic libraries in England and France. They were not only exploited by *Nicholas de Lyre (see below), but were plagiarized by Peter the Digester, author of the standard medieval Historia Scholastica, and by preachers (e.g., Archbishop Stephen Langton) whose sermons circulated widely in written form.

During the 12th and 13th centuries Christian scholars were prosecuting their search for the philosophical and scientific texts of Greek antiquity and late antiquity in Italy, Sicily, southern France, and Spain. This sometimes brought them to Jewish interpreters, or to Hebrew versions of Aristotle and others made from the Arabic; but their concern with the intermediate Hebrew was incidental only, except insofar as it related to *Maimonides and – later on – other philosophers of Judaism who had written in Arabic and had been translated into Hebrew. It is a fair assumption – but no more – that the Latin-speaking translators of these Arabic texts, such as Gundissalinus, would have acquired some Hebrew alongside their study of Arabic. But in those cases where they were either dependent on a Hebrew version, or were collating one with its antecedent Arabic, they may very well have relied entirely on a Jewish collaborator.

The Rise of the Mendicant Orders

The year 1210 saw the foundation of the Franciscans, whose Hebrew interests were mainly motivated by (1, b), and 1215 that of the Dominicans or Preachers, who, responding primarily to (1, c) and (1, cc), sited their houses when possible near Jewish quarters or actually within them, as at Oxford. Their missionary zeal was directed also toward Muslims, and consequently to Spain where many Jews spoke Arabic, and led a few Dominicans to study Arabic and others Hebrew; they may have established a Hebrew school at Paris in about 1236. The efforts of the Franciscans have left more trace in England, due largely to the encouragement of Robert Grosseteste (d. 1253), bishop of Lincoln, and to the pioneering endeavors of Roger *Bacon, himself an author of Greek and Hebrew grammars, who grasped the cognate nature of Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic. An interlinear glossation of the Hebrew Bible (superscriptio Lincolniensis) reflects in its name Grosseteste's encouragement: it follows the Hebrew word order with syllabically literal faithfulness, and often reflects Rashi's exegesis and develops his Norman-French glosses. The Psalms version survives complete, and fragments of other parts of the Bible, but coverage was probably not completed; and Henry of Cossey, a Cambridge Franciscan (d. 1336), in saying that the Church had "not yet" authorized the version, may imply domestic aspiration or a serious project. The collaboration of Jews, possibly reluctant and still faithful rather than apostates, has been proved. Thus facility (2, b) was apparently available preeminently in France and England, and the English expulsion of 1290 (occasion type 2, b) may have increased potential consultants in Paris and elsewhere.

The result of this (and doubtless other unrecorded) interest, alongside motive (1, aa; see below) was the enactment of the ecclesiastical Council of Vienne (1312) – thanks to the efforts of the Arabist Raymond Lull – that two teaching posts each for Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic should be established at Paris, Oxford, Bologna, and Salamanca respectively. In Oxford the converted Jew John of Bristol taught Hebrew and Greek for a few years from 1321, and in Paris and Salamanca the Hebrew chair was staffed for about a century, but that of Paris certainly thereafter lapsed. The superscriptio was forgotten, possibly being overshadowed by the commentary of the Franciscan Nicholas de Lyre to the entire Bible. Leaning on Andrew and heavily impregnated by independent use of Rashi, it was later supplemented by the apostate Paul of Burgos (see Pablo de Santa *Maria) (d. 1435) from *Ibn Ezra and *Kimḥi. The Christian student apparently now felt that he could skip the Hebrew text, and its linguistic study hibernated until the late 15th century. Lyre's supplemented "Postillae" became, alongside the Historia Scholastica (see above), the standard source for Jewish exegetical matter; Lyre's work was the first Christian commentary to reach print (1471–72), long retaining its place.

The other contributory stimulus (1, a; 1, aa) was the endeavor to correct and standardize the text of the Latin Vulgate, initiative here lying with the Dominicans, although the Franciscan correctoria, profiting from their predecessors' experience, were more influential. The general effect, however (in default of print), was to leave confusion worse confounded, as Bacon (criticizing the Dominican correctoria) pointed out with great emphasis; the reason partly being failure to separate the task of establishing the "best" Vulgate text (i.e., the purest or the fullest, according to standpoint), from that of collating the current (let alone the most primitive) Latin text with the current Hebrew, whose uncompromised originality was presupposed. Such Hebrew expertise as is evinced in this work is associated with the Dominican Hugh of St. Cher (d. 1263) of Paris, and with the Franciscan William of Mara (fl. 1280), whose Hebrew scholarship was enthusiastically acclaimed by Bacon. The only permanent effect of this activity was a unified chapter division since adopted (with slight exceptions) by Jews in the Hebrew text as well.

Missionary activity in Spain also led the Dominicans to investigate post-biblical Jewish literature, with a view to the refutation of matter therein allegedly incompatible with Christianity. In Raymond *Martini the Dominicans produced a scholar unusually versed in rabbinic literature, whose controversialist collectaneum (Pugio fidei) contains some extracts – now considered genuine – from Jewish sources which are no longer extant. A similar 13th-century enterprise, by French Dominicans led by Theobald, excerpted a number of allegedly objectionable extractiones de Talmude (including some from Rashi's commentary), the continued influence of which even into the age of print is only now becoming clearer. The Pugio Fidei remained a standard source for anti-Jewish polemic, which hovered between motives (1, cc) and (1, d). In the public *Disputations (1, cc) forced on the Jews, initiative came largely from apostates and from the Dominicans; and since most of the apostates (e.g., Pablo *Christiani, or Gerónimo de Santa Fé, alias Joshua (al-) *Lorki) were at best amateur rabbinists of inferior competence to their Jewish respondents, the Hebrew scholarship adduced on the Christian side was largely repetitive. After the Reformation, Protestant tractarians were able somewhat to enlarge the repertoire (see e.g., Johann *Eisenmenger).

Jewish Scientific Writings

In addition to Christian concern in the Hebrew Bible and messianic and similar passages in talmudic literature, there sometimes was an interest in Hebrew texts which were recognized as being both Jewish, and also creatively new, in a way that Talmud and Midrash were not: namely, scientific writings. This does not refer to the recovery of the older Greek texts through Arabic and Hebrew versions as described above, but rather to the near contemporary works – medical, mathematical, astronomical, etc. – of Abraham Ibn Ezra, *Abraham b. Ḥayya (Savasorda), Maimonides, and others. In Jewish philosophy the most significant production, Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed, early became available in a Latin translation that relieved aspirant students of learning Hebrew. The same applies to the older medical writings of Jews, especially Isaac *Israeli, while the Jewish authorship of the Fons Vitae by Ibn *Gabirol (Avicebron) was apparently early forgotten. But by the 13th–14th centuries the scientific writings of Jews (mainly of Spain) were being sought by Christians in southern Europe, and occasionally (via these southern countries) further north; thus, Kepler was to put himself to trouble to see astronomical matter included in works of *Levi b. Gershom (Gersonides).

The presence, from 1391 onward, of many converted Jews in Spain, and after 1492 of many crypto-Jews, facilitated such studies (2, b; 2, c): not only because Hebrew teachers were relatively easy to find, and to employ (as being professedly Christians) de jure in the universities, but also because these "converts" had often carried with them into their Christian conformity an interest in, and familiarity with, earlier Jewish science, and themselves maintained the tradition in Latin (or Spanish), alongside the contemporary work (up until 1492) of their still faithful kinsfolk.

The Kabbalah, Italy, and the Renaissance

Spain was also the birthplace of the Zoharic Kabbalah, the wider impact of which was first felt in the communities of Italy and Provence, where (as in Spain) Jewish instructors could easily be found. Italy stands out, already in the 15th century, for Christian kabbalistic interests. Motivation was ambivalent (1, bb; 1, c; 1, cc). The *Zohar's ascription to R. *Simeon b. Yohai in late antiquity being presupposed, it was reckoned authentically Jewish, and consequently not open to repudiation by Jews if adduced controversially by Christians. Moreover, features of the kabbalistic system were deemed to be not merely coherent with Christian trinitarianism but indeed potentially to underwrite it. By the end of the 15th century, Kabbalah had become a significant discipline of study for a few Christian humanists – e.g., *Pico della Mirandola and *Egidio da Viterbo – who were really competent in Hebrew and Jewish Aramaic. Such names mark the crowning achievement of medieval Christian Hebraism, which is marked off (though still a continuity) from modern Hebrew studies by the work of Johann *Reuchlin and the age of print. Five outstanding 16th-century scholars in the field were Pietro Columna *Galatinus, Francesco *Giorgio, Guillaume *Postel, Guy Le *Fèvre de la Boderie, and Benito *Arias Montano. This Hebrew interest, as the outcome of the religious humanism of the Renaissance, is linked by the same parent to the Hebrew scholarship of the Reformation, in which the same atmosphere largely prevailed – and the Christian kabbalists could never have made such remarkable progress but for the encouragement of Hebrew in Italy by prince and prelate during the earlier part of the 15th century. A revised attitude (1, e) toward Greek and Roman antiquity, as having discovered the vehicle for certain permanent values in a linguistic meticulousness that could consequently be considered "classical," easily set the language of the Hebrew Bible alongside them: since biblical values (as read with a Christian glossation) were considered permanent, biblical Hebrew, no less than Plato's Greek or Virgil's Latin, must be acknowledged to be "classical." Post-biblical Hebrew might, as a corollary, have been scorned as debased and post-classical, but it was not; perhaps because, inarticulately and paradoxically, the Christian humanists sensed a continuity of a sort between post-biblical Judaism and Christianity, unlike the discontinuity with paganism. Consequently, despite the conviction that the Church had displaced the Synagogue as the authentic embodiment of the message of the "Old" Testament, the supposedly obsolete institutions and theology of Judaism – presumed still to be those of apostolic times – remained worth investigating.

Such academic motivations were reinforced by (1, c) conversionism, and led not merely to the study of Hebrew – occasionally even as a spoken language, with Jewish or apostate assistance – it also stimulated the collection of Hebrew manuscripts, not as curiosities but as appropriate to any humanist's library that purported to be well equipped. Typical of the enterprise may be considered Giannozzo *Manetti, who at the encouragement of Nicholas v laid the foundations of the Vatican Hebrew collection. At the turn of the 15th–16th centuries such interest flourished sufficiently to lead to the foundation of a few "trilingual" colleges – in Alcala (Spain), thanks to the patronage of Cardinal *Ximenes (Cisneros), in Paris (College de France), at Oxford (Corpus Christi College), at Louvain, Vienna, and conceivably elsewhere. In some cases these arrangements were absorbed in, or replaced by professorships (see below); elsewhere they may have petered out. But in England the tradition of "trilinguality" (to be carried further, in ideal, by Robert Wakefield's tract (1524) on the laus et utilitas of Arabic, Aramaic, and Hebrew) passed into some of the grammar schools then being founded, e.g., Colet's refounded St. Paul's (London) – there to survive, admittedly in an attenuated form, except in the case of Merchant Taylors' School, where it was prosecuted vigorously into the 20th century.

The Reformation and the Age of Printing

For approximately 50 years (1490–1540) the following three independent factors invigorated each other: (a) The emergence of a cadre of near-modern type scholars, preeminently J. Reuchlin and C. *Pellicanus, capable of training successors on the basis of comprehensive and categorically articulated grammars of at least biblical Hebrew accidence, which they themselves composed. These grammars were substantially influenced by David Kimḥi's. (b) The spread of the *printing press, and the demands of Christian Hebraists for Hebrew type – a need met in northern Europe at first by blockcutting for each word. Pride of place again belongs to Italy, where movable Hebrew type-font had already been well developed by Jewish printers; the enterprise of the Christian printer Daniel Bomberg of Venice stands out. Enjoying the patronage of Leo x, and availing himself of the editorial services of really expert rabbinists (including the convert Jacob b. Ḥayyim of Tunis, and Elijah *Levita) Bomberg gave Europe both its first "rabbinic" bibles (i.e., Hebrew texts with parallel Jewish commentaries), and the first complete edition of both Talmuds. The presence of these volumes, often from an early date, in academic libraries across Europe may be a significant pointer to Hebrew interest locally. Pellicanus' Hebrew grammar was the first to be printed (Strasbourg, 1504); Reuchlin's (Pforzheim, 1506) also contained a vocabulary. With these basic tools, which were rapidly improved, the modern foundations of western academic Hebrew may be considered laid. (c) The movement toward ecclesiastical reform that ended in the emergence of nation-centered Protestant churches independent of Rome owed much to the claim – ultimately a quasi-dogma – that authority lay not in the tradition of the western Church controlled by the papal curia, which had encrusted the Bible with its own interpretation (parallel to the procedure of rabbinic Judaism), but in the unadulterated text of the Bible itself. Hence the need for study of the biblical languages, and for producing improved translations – soon into the vernaculars of Europe, but also into Latin (e.g., that by Xanctes (Santes) *Pagnini, 1528). Pagnini's was a Catholic enterprise and when the Council of Trent asserted the "authenticity" of the Latin Vulgate, this was on grounds of its embodying of and linkage with "officially" endorsed patristic exegesis (analogous to the position of Targum Onkelos within Judaism), and not by way of depreciation of the greater accuracy of the new translations. But the result was that, until recent times, Catholic vernacular versions have continued to be made from the Latin, with the significant exception of the Spanish Bible, which was a Jewish production made in Italy, and accepted by the curia through (ex-) Marrano channels.

Together, these trends brought about the establishment of professorships of Hebrew in the universities, both in Catholic countries and under the reformed churches, in part as an item of governmental policy; the "Regius" chairs at Oxford and Cambridge, for example, being founded by Henry viii in 1540. Henceforth, however, gentile Hebraism in Europe flows along divided streams – one Catholic, and the other in the countries of the Reform.

Post-Reformation Catholic Hebraism

The Counter-Reformation focused Catholic Hebrew scholarship almost exclusively on the Hebrew Bible, Jewish interests that had engaged men like Pico della Mirandola being left for Protestants. The major achievements were consequently the polyglot editions of the Bible (Antwerp, 1569–72, and Paris, 1628–45). But paradoxically it was an Italian Cistercian, *Bartolocci, and his successor Imbonati, whose Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica (Rome, 1675–93) laid the foundations of Jewish bibliography, thereby adding to Hebrew scholarship a dimension from which Jewish no less than gentile Hebraists have benefited. In the late 18th century G.B. de *Rossi in Parma likewise set himself to widen Hebrew academic horizons once again.

The Protestant Countries

In the reformed countries, most Hebraists were members of the nationally established church concerned; but ecclesiastical and political frontiers break down in the case of Hungary, where a preponderant number of the Hebrew scholars were Calvinists, many of them having studied abroad. Protestant masoretic studies produced in the 17th century some notable editions of the Bible, particularly those of the Dutchmen Leusden and van der Hooght; but the crowning achievement was the publication in London (1657) of the most elaborate polyglot Bible ever produced, by a scholarly team led by B. *Walton. But during the later 16th and early 17th centuries the making of vernacular bible versions was earnestly prosecuted, having begun with Luther's German from 1523 and *Tyndale's English from 1530, both made direct from the Hebrew. The names of those responsible for the English "Authorised" Version (King James', 1611) are all known, and included some of the best contemporary Hebraists and Orientalists (see *Bible, Versions, English). The high frequency with which from 1504 onward Hebrew grammars were published (and reprinted) must imply a student market greatly outnumbering the names of those Christian Hebraists known to us as such from their publications; many others, theologians and lawyers, etc., from, e.g., Wittenberg, Jena, Leipzig, or Basle – place-names that occur time and again on the title pages of grammars – must have carried away an ability to read the Hebrew Bible, and their casual use of it in their writings can often be traced from the indexes, or the occurrence of Hebrew typeface, in their collected works.

Two Hebrew presses – at Basle and Leiden – stand out as academically adventurous. Sebastian *Muenster who published (1542) a post-biblical Hebrew grammar, issued from Basle a number of rabbinic texts, some with Latin translations, in which he enjoyed the cooperation of Paulus Fagius. The *Buxtorf dynasty carried on and extended the same editorial activity, producing translations of several of the classical texts of medieval Judaism, including *Judah Halevi'sKuzari and Maimonides' Guide, as well as the first large-scale Lexicon Chaldaicum Talmudicum et Rabbinicum (1639). The Leiden and Amsterdam presses, especially the former (as also to a lesser degree those of Lund and Uppsala) printed many Hebrew publications including the doctoral dissertations of students of Jewish texts, as presided over by their teachers. The typical set task, from the later 16th century until toward the end of the 18th, was to translate into Latin a tractate of the Mishnah, or a section of Maimonides' Code, or the commentary of Rashi, Ibn Ezra, or *Abrabanel, to part or all of one of the biblical books (Rashi to the whole Hebrew Bible was published in Latin by J.F. *Breithauft (1710–13)). Although any system will presumably have depended on a teacher's own interests and assignments to his pupils, probably with little attention to work being done elsewhere, the amount of rabbinic literature thus haphazardly placed in the hands of readers of Latin is impressive.

Other enterprises rank as fresh groundbreaking, such as *Scaliger's communication with the Samaritans of Nablus. Dutch and (even more so) English trading connections with the Levant gave some scholars opportunity to visit Turkey as chaplains, the preeminent example being Edward *Pococke, whose Hebrew scholarship won genuine acclaim from contemporary levantine rabbis. John *Selden, as a lawyer, developed remarkable insight into the workings of halakhah, and the body of rabbinic learning applied to the exegesis of the New Testament (an enterprise that had continental parallels) by J.B. *Lightfoot was highly considered indeed. Chrestomathies for introducing students were also being produced, e.g., *Reland'sAnalecta Rabbinica (Utrecht, 1702). Reland's pupil A. *Schultens (d. 1756) first systematically exploited Arabic for the elucidation of Hebrew vocabulary. Among the Puritans of New England, the Mayflower had included one or two with a knowledge of Hebrew in its passenger list, and H. *Ainsworth is to be reckoned a "professional"; otherwise, through the 18th century American Hebraism was an affair of amateurs, some of them by no means negligible in competence, typified by Ezra *Stiles of Yale.

The Nineteenth Century

After approximately 1800 two new factors reduced the spate of rabbinic dissertations. One was the growth, after J.D. Michaelis' study of the Mosaic Law (1770–75), of the modern source-analytical study of the Hebrew Bible, largely elaborated regarding the Pentateuch by K.H. *Graf, and classically stated by J. *Wellhausen in 1889. This diverted the attention of Hebraists in the reformed countries back toward the Bible, especially since the decipherment of cuneiform yielded, from the middle of the century onward, an increasing body of highly relevant new source material. The other factor was Jewish emancipation, which produced a few Jews of the type of *Zunz and *Steinschneider who were academically trained in the Western sense and eager to apply modern scholarly techniques and categories to Jewish material, to whose attentions contemporary Christian Hebraists were apparently content to resign it. Conceivably the change of attitude in Germany, where hitherto much rabbinic scholarship had been prosecuted by gentiles, may be linkable to reaction against the liberalism that had produced Jewish emancipation. The net result was that what had hitherto counted as Hebrew scholarship split into two quasi-independent disciplines, namely, Old Testament scholarship, which maintained a nodding acquaintance with the newly recognized discipline of Oriental or Semitic studies; both largely ignoring "Jewish" scholarship as having little more to contribute to their respective disciplines, and as falling in an academic no-man's-land between East and West. There was thus a gap of approximately a century in the cultivation by Christian scholars of rabbinics as a tool for New Testament and other late-antique studies, until its relevance was rediscovered in the 20th century, and enhanced in importance when the Dead Sea Scrolls began to be investigated.

The history of gentile Hebrew scholarship cannot be properly written until the careers and achievements of its practitioners have been not only assessed but also correlated. The list of names which follows makes no claim to completeness. (See Table: Christian Hebraists.) The Hebrew competence of those listed prior to about 1500 may prove, on investigation, sometimes to have been less than repute has credited to the individual concerned, but these early students have been given the benefit of the doubt. After about 1500 minimal qualifications for inclusion are tenure of an official academic or para-academic teaching post for Hebrew, or defense of a thesis on a rabbinic subject, or the publication of a Hebrew grammar (authors of the multitudinous manuscript Hebrew grammars extant in libraries have not been included, unless otherwise qualified). So far as is known, the list includes no name whose bearer was of Jewish parentage but who himself apostatized. With one or two readily intelligible exceptions, it excludes all who died after 1890. This year – that of the death of F. *Delitzsch, and following that of the publication of Wellhausen's documentary hypothesis – may be taken as the division between post-Reformation Hebrew scholarship and the accommodation of Hebrew and Jewish subjects within Semitics, the Hebrew Bible nevertheless sometimes still being felt to be a preserve of the Christian theologian, which prevails in the modern secular university and some of its confessional counterparts.

bibliography:

(The abbreviations in the right-hand column are used in the Christian Hebraists list following the bibliography).

general:

M. Steinschneider, in: zhb, 1–5 (1896–1901), cited by serial numbers;
     St.

idem, Cat. Bod.;
     Bodl. Cat.

idem, Die europaeischen Uebersetzungen aus dem Arabischen bis Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts (1849);
     Europ. Uebers.

idem, Die hebraeischen Uebersetzungen des Mittelalters (1893);
     Hebr. Uebers.

B. Ugolinus, Thesaurus Antiquitatum Sacrarum…, 34 vols. (Venice, 1774–69);
     Ugolini

M. Kayserling, in: rej, 20 (1890), 261–8; idem, in: JQR, 9 (1896/97), 509–14;

D. Kauffmann, in: mgwj, 39 (1895), 145–67;

B. Pick, in: Bibliotheca Sacra, 42 (1886);

H. Rashdall, Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, ed. By F.M. Powicke and A.B. Emden, 3 vols. (19362);

P.S. Allen, in: Erasmus (1934), 138f.;

C. Singer and G.H. Box, in: E.R. Bevan and C. Singer (eds.), Legacy of Israel (19282), 238f., 315f.;

J. Parkes, in: sbb, 6 (1962), 11–28;
     Parkes

New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 13 vols. (1949–50);
     Enc. Rel. Kn.

B. Blumenkranz, Les Auteurs chrétiens latins du Moyen Age sur les juifs et le judaïsme (1963);

F. Secret, Le Zôhar chez les kabbalistes chrétiens de la Renaissance (19642);

idem, Les kabbalistes chrétiens de la Renaissance (1964);

H. Hailperin, Rashi and the Christian Scholars (1963);

H.J. Schoeps, Philosemitismus im Barock (1952);

B. Smalley, Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages (19522);

R. Loewe, in: G.H.W. Lampe (ed.), Cambridge History of the Bible, 2 (1969), 148f.;

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie;
     adb

Nouvelle Biographie Générale;
     nbu

M. Michaud (ed.), Biographie Universelle ancienne et moderne, 45 vols. (1854–652);
     Biogr. Univ.

Encyclopaedia Brittanica (191111);
     Enc. Br.11

Jewish Encyclopaedia, 12 vols. (1901–05);
     je

Catholic Encyclopaedia, 15 vols. (1907–15; 19672);

Hebraeische Bibliographie (1858–82);
     Heb. Bibl.

Zeitschrift fuer Hebraeische Bibliographie (1896–1920);

J. Zedner, Catalogue of the Hebrew Books in the… British Museum (1867).
     Zedner

religious orders:

Franciscans: L. Wadding (ed.), Scriptores Ordinis Minorum (Rome, 1650; repr. 1967);
     Wadding

J.H. Sbaralea, Supplementum…ad Scriptores trium ordinum…, 3 pts. (1908–36);
     Sbaralea Supple.

Dominicans: J. Quétif and J. Echard, Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum, 2 vols. (Paris, 1719–23; repr., 2 vols. in 4, 1959);

Jesuits: A. and A. de Backer, Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus, ed. by C. Sommervogel, 11 vols. (1890–1932);
     Bibl. Comp. de Jésus

L. Polgár, Bibliography of the History of the Society of Jesus (1967).

countries:

america:

W. Rosenau, Semitic Studies in American Colleges (1896);

D. de Sola Pool, in: AJHSP, 20 (1911), 31–83;

A. Johnson (ed.), Dictionary of American Biography (1928–37).
     D. Am. B.

austria:

W.A. Neumann, Ueber die orientalischen Sprachenstudien seit dem XIII. Jahrhunderte, mit besonderer Ruecksicht auf Wien (1899);

C. von Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexicon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, 60 vols. (1856–91);
     blk Oest

L. Santifaller (ed.), Oesterreichisches Biographisches Lexicon 1815–1950 (1954– ).
     obl

belgium:

Biographie Nationale de Belgique (1866– );
     bn Belg.

J. Duverger, Nationaal Biografisch Woordenboek (in progress).
     nbw

bohemia:

Czech Academy of Sciences, Oriental Institute, Moscow, Asian and African Studies in Czechoslovakia (1967);

See also hungary , J. Janko.

denmark:

C.F. Bricka, P. Engelstoft, and S. Dahl (eds.), Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, 27 vols. (1933–44).
     Dansk

france:

S. Berger, Quam notitiam linguae hebraicae habuerint christiani medii aevi temporibus in Gallia (1893);

P. Colomiès, Gallia Orientalis (The Hague, 1665);

F. Secret, in: rej, 126 (1967), 417–33;

idem, Les kabbalistes chrétiens de la Renaissance (1964), 151–217;

J. Batteau, M. Barroux, and M. Prévost (eds.), Dictionnaire de Biographie Française (1933– );
     dbf

See also above nbu.

germany:

L. Geiger, Das Studium der hebraeischen Sprache in Deutschland vom Ende des XV. bis zur Mitte des XVI. Jahrhunderts (1870);
     Geiger

E. Sachau, Die deutschen Universitaeten (1893), 520;

B. Walde, Christliche Hebraisten Deutschlands am Ausgang des Mittelalters (1916);
     Walde

G. Bauch, in: mgwj, 48 (1904);

C.F. Schnurrer, Biographische und litterarische Nachrichten von ehmaligen Lehren der hebraeischen Litteratur in Tuebingen (Ulm, 1792); Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlaendischen Gesellschaft (1846– );
     zdmg

G. Behrmann, Hamburgs Orientalisten (1902);

Neue Deutsche Biographie (1953– );

See also above adb.

great britain:

S.A. Hirsch, in: jqr, 12 (1900), 34–88;

S. Levy, in: jhsem, 4 (1942), 61–84;
     jhs Misc.

R. Loewe, in: jhset, 17 (1953), 225–49;

idem, in: J.M. Shaftesley (ed.), Remember the Days (1966), 23–48;

L. Roth, in: jss, 6 (1961), 204–21;

Dictionary of National Biography (1885– );
     dnb

A.B. Emden, Biographical Register of the University of Oxford to A.D. 1500, 3 vols. (1957–59);

J. Foster (ed.), Alumni Oxonienses, 8 vols. (1888–92);
     Foster

idem, Index Ecclesiasticus (1890);
     Index Eccles.

J. and J.A. Venn (eds.), Alumni Cantabrigienses (1922– ).
     Venn

holland:

D. Friedman, in: A.J. Barnhouw and B. Landheer (eds.), Contribution of Holland to the Sciences (1943), 219–49;

P.C. Molhuysen and P.J. Blok, Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek, 10 vols. (1911–37);
     nnbw

J.P. de Bie and J. Loosjes (eds.), Biographisch Woordenboek van Protestantsche Godgeleerden in Nederland, 6 vols. (1919–49).
     bwpgn

hungary:

S. Kohn, A Szombatosok (1889);
     Kohn

A. Marmorstein, in: zmb, 8–9 (1904–05);
     Marm.

L. Pap, Die Wissenschaft vom Alten Testament (1940);
     Pap.

L. Venetianer, in: imit (1898), 136f.;
     Venet.

J. Zovanyi, Cikkei a Theológiai Lexikon számára (1940);
     Zov.

R. Dan, in: Magyar Könyvszemle, 81 (1965), 284f.;
     Dan

K. Beranek, in: Studia semitica philologica… Ioani Bakos dicata (1965), 29f.;

J. Janko, ibid., 33f.;

J. Szinnyei, Magyar irok, 6 vols. (1891–1914; repr. 1939–44).
     Szin.

italy:

D. Kaufmann, in: rej, 27 (1893);

idem, in: jqr, 9 (1896/97), 500–8;

P. Colomiès, Italia et Hispania Orientalis (Hamburg, 1730);

A. de Gubernatis, Matériaux pour servir à l'histoire des études orientales en Italie (1876);

C. Roth, Jews in the Renaissance (1959), 137f.;

idem, in: Jewish Studies… Israel Abrahams (1927), 384–401;

Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (1960– );
     dbi

Enciclopedia Biografica e Bibliografica Italiana (1936– );
     Enc. Biogr. Ital

Enciclopedia Italiana, 36 vols. (1929–39).
     Enc. It.

poland:

Polski Słownik Biograficzny (1935– ).
     Polski Slownik Biogr.

spain:

See above: P. Colomiès (Italy);

Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana, 70 vols. in 71 (1905–30);

sweden:

K.U. Nylander, in: Ny Svensk Tidskrift (1889);

E.L. Hydren, Specimen historico-literarum de fatis literaturae Orientalis in Suecia (Uppsala, 1775);

Svenska män och kvinnor (1942– )
     Svensk

B. Boethius, et al. (eds.), Svenskt Biografiskt Lexicon (1918– );
     sbl

See also general , H.J. Schoeps.

switzerland:

A.B. Staehelin, Geschichte der Universitaet Basel 1632–1818 (1957);

E. Bonjour, Die Universitaet Basel… 1460–1960 (1960);

J. Prijs, Die Basler hebraeischen Drucke 1492–1866, ed. by B. Prijs (1964);-
     dhbs

Dictionnaire Historique et Biographique de la Suisse, 7 vols. (1921–34);

Historisch-Biographisches Lexicon der Schweiz, 7 vols. (1921–34).
     Hist. Biogr. Lex. Schweiz

[Raphael Loewe]

Name Country-(ies) Dates Religious Confession References
Aarhus, Peter Sim.Denmarkfl.1711CalvinistSt. 57
Abicht, Johann GeorgGermany1672–1740Lutheran
Abram (Abrahamus), NicolausFrance1589–1645JesuitDBF
Abresch, PetrusHolland1736–1812Reformed Ch.NNBW; BWPGN; NBW
Abundachus, Joseph Barbatus MemphiticusEgypt, England, Flanders1st half of 17th c.JesuitNBU
Ackermann, LeopoldAustria1771–1831CatholicBLK Oest; OBL; ADB
Acoluthus, AndreasGermany1654–1704LutheranADB
Addison, LancelotEngland1632–1703AnglicanSt. 59; DNB
Adler, Jacob Georg ChristianDenmark?1756–1834St. 60; Dansk; NBU; ADB
Aegidius da Viterbo, see Viterbo, Aegidius da
Agelli, AntonioItaly1532–1608TheatineDBI; Enc. It; NBU
Ainsworth, HenryEngland, Holland?1569–?1623Brownist
Ajtai, A.MihályHungary1704–1776CalvinistMarm; Szin.
Akai, KrisófHungary1706–1766CatholicMarm; Szin.
Alabaster, WilliamEngland1567–1640Anglican, then Catholic, then AnglicanDNB
Alber, JohannHungary1753–1830CatholicMarm; Szin.
Alberti, Paul MartinGermany17th–18th c.ProtestantNBU
Albert(in)a KatherinaBohemialate 17th c.Heb. Bibl. 20, 66.
Allen, JohnEngland1771–1839DNB
Allix, PeterFrance, England1641–1717HuguenotSt. 62; DNB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11; DBF
Alstedius, Johann Henr.Hungary1588–1638CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Alting, JacobusHolland1618–1679Calvinist
Alting, Johann HeinrichHolland1583–1644CalvinistNNBW; NBU; ADB; Enc. Br. 11
Amama, SixtinusHolland1593–1629Calvinist
Amandus van ZierikseeBelgiumc.1450–1524 (34)FranciscanNBU; NNBW; ADB.
Ambrogio, TeseoItaly1469–1540
Amersfoordt, PetrusHolland1786–1824NNBW; NBW; BWPGN; NBU
Amman (Ammonius), KasparGermany, Belgiumc. 1450–post 1524AugustinianADB; NDB; NBW; Walde; Geiger
Amoena Amalia of AnhaltGermanyd. 1625Heb. Bibl. 20, 66
Ancherson, Matth.Denmark1682–1741St. 88; Dansk
Andala, RuardHolland1665–1727Reformed Ch.NNBW; NBU
Andreas de León, see Zamora, Andreas de León
Andrew of St. VictorEngland12th c.Victorine
Andrew, JamesScotland, England1774(?)–1833Venn; Index Eccles.
Andrewes, LancelotEngland1555–1626AnglicanDNB
Andrewes, RogerEnglandc.1590–1635AnglicanDNB
Andrews, BenjaminEngland1785–1868WesleyanJHS Misc. 4, 75
Anna Sophia of HessenGermanyc. 1658CatholicHeb. Bibl. 20, 66
Anna Urban, née Weissbrucker, see Urban, Anna Weissbrucker
Ansgarius, see Anchersen, Matth.
Anslus, Gerebrardfl. 1640St. 89
Antonia, Princess of WuerttembergGermanyd. 1679Heb. Bibl. 20, 67; JQR, 9 (1896/97), 509-14
Apáczai, Csere JánosHungary1625–1659CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Apáti, MiklósHungary1662–1724CalvinistMarm; Szin; Pap.
Aretius (= Marti), BenedictusSwitzerland?1505–1574DHBS; NBU; ADB
Arias Montano, BenitoSpain, Low Countries1527–1598(nominal) Catholic
Armengaud, BlasiusFranced. 1314St. 18; Europ. Ubers. 6, 19
Arnd, CarolGermany1673–1721NBU
Arnd(ius), JoshuaGermany1626–1686St. 91; NBU
Arnold of VillanovaSpain, France, Sicilyc.1230–1313St. 18; Europ. Ubers 6, 20; DBF
Arnoldi, MichaelHolland1658–1738CalvinistSt. 92; NNBW; NBW; BWPGN
Artoæpus (Bekker), PetrusGermanyd. 1563ProtestantNBU
Ashworth, CalebEngland1722–1775DissenterDNB
Aslakssen, Cort (Conrad Aslacus)Norway Denmark1564–1624Lutheran
Asp, MatthiasSweden1696–1763SBL
Assemani, Joseph SimeonLebanon, Italy1687–1768Maronite
Aubry, Esaias?France, Germanyc. 1730St. 95
Audran, Prosper GabrielFrance1744–1819JansenistDBF
Aurivillius, CarlSweden1717–1786Svensk; NBU
Aurogallus (Goldhahn), Matth.Germanyc.1490–1543ADB; NBU
Avenarius, see Habermann, Johannes
Bacon, RogerEnglandc. 1214–1292Franciscan
Bahrdt, Carl FriedrichGermany1741–1792Lapsed LutheranADB; NBU; EB
Baillie, WilliamIrelandb. 1795Heb. Grammar, Dublin, 1840
Baldi, BernardinoItaly1553–1617AugustinianSt. 96; DBI
Baldovius, Jo.fl. 1636Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1636
Balduin, DorotheaHungary1685–1739?Marm; Szin.
Bang, ThomasDenmark1600–1661LutheranDansk; NBU
Baratier(us), Johann PhilipGermany1721–1740Reformed Ch.St. 97; NBU; EB
Barbatus, Joseph, see Abundachus, Joseph Barbatus Memphiticus
Barker, SamuelEngland1686–1759DNB
Barker, William HiggsEngland1744–1815DNB
Barnard, SamuelU.S.A.fl. 1825Heb. & Aramaic Grammar, Philadelphia, 1825
Barozzi (Barocius) FrancescoItaly1537–1604St. 98; DBI; NBU
Bartolocci, GiulioItaly1613–1687Cistercian
Bashuysen, Heinrich Jakob van(Holland), Germany1679–1738Reformed Ch.
Basnage, Jacques de BeauvalFrance, Holland1653–1723Reformed Ch.
Bate, JuliusEngland1711–1771HutchinsonianDNB; NBU
Báthori, G. MihályHungary1631–1669CalvinistSzin; Zov; Dan
Bayley, CorneliusEngland1751–1812Methodist, later AnglicanDNB
Bayly, AnselmEngland1719–1794DNB
Baynes, RalphEngland, Francec.1504–1559CatholicSt. 101; DNB
Beck(ius), Matthias FriedrichGermany1649–1701LutheranSt. 102; ADB
Beck, MichaelGermany1653–1712LutheranADB; NBU
Beckmann, Jo. Christ.Germanyfl. 1677St. 103
Bedwell, WilliamEngland1561 or 62–1632AnglicanSt. 104; DNB; NBU
Beekman, JacobHolland17th c.
Beelen, Jo. TheodorHollandfl. 1841St. 105
Beeston, WilliamEnglandb. 1798Pre-masoretic ("Hieronymean") Heb. grammar, London, 1843
Beke, Matth.Hollandfl. 1708St. 106
Békés, JánosHungary17th c.CalvinistDan
Bekker, Georges JosephGermany, Belgium1792–1837BN Belg.
Bekker, Petrus, see Artopæus (Bekker), Petrus
Bél, MátyásHungary1684–1749LutheranSzin.
Bellarmino, Roberto Francesco RomoloItaly1542–1621Jesuit, CardinalEnc. It.; Enc. Br.11; NBU
Bellerman, Jo. JoachimGermany1754–1842ADB; NBU
Benedicti, JeanFrancefl. 1584Catholic
Benivieni, GirolamoItaly1453–1542CatholicEnc. It.; NBU; Roth, Renaissance, p. 146
Bennett, ThomasEngland1673–1728AnglicanDNB; NBU
Benoit, J., see Benedict; Jean
BenzelinFrancefl. 1826Heb. grammar, Paris, 1826
Benzelius, EricusSweden1675–1743St. 312; Svensk; SBL; NBU
Beregszászi, PálHungary18th c.CalvinistVenet.
Berkeley, GeorgeIreland1685–1753AnglicanDNB
Bernard, EdwardEngland1638–1696/7St. 107; DNB; NBU
Bernard, Hermann HedwigAustria, England1785–1857
Beronius, Magnus OlaiSweden1692–1775St. 137; Svensk; SBL
Besange, Hieronymus vonAustria1726–1764 (?)BenedictineBLK Oest.
Besnyei, GyörgyHungary1730–70CalvinistMarm; Szin.
Bialloblotzky, Christoph Heinrich FriedrichGermany, Englandd. 1869LutheranADB
Bibliander (Buchmann), TheodoreSwitzerland1504–1564Reformed Ch.DHBS; NBU; ADB
Bidermann, Jo. GottliebGermany1705–1772ADB
Binans, Jean François deFrance??
Bindrim, Johann GeorgParkes n. 57; Ugolini 26, 332
Bircherod, Jan. (Jacob Jensen?)Denmark1624–1688St. 109; Dansk
Biscioni(us), Antonio MariaItaly1674–1756
Blancaccius, BenedictusItalyfl. 1608Heb. grammar, Rome, 1608
Blankenburg(ius), Fridericus? Germanyfl. 1625Heb. grammar, Strasbourg, 1625
Blayney, BenjaminEngland1728–1801DNB; NBU
Blebelius, Thom.Germanyfl. 1587Heb. grammar, Wittenberg, 1587
Blech, Wilhelm PhilippGermanyfl. 1864Heb. grammar, Danzig, 1864
Bloch, Søren Niklas JohanDenmark1772–1862Dansk
Boberg, AndreasSweden1678–1756SBL
Bochart, SamuelFrance1599–1667CalvinistNBF; EB; JE; ERK
Bode(c)ker (Bodiker), StephanGermany1384–1489PraemonstratensianSt. 52; Walde; A. Hauck, Kirchengesichte Deutschlands, v, 1177.
Bodley, ThomasEngland1545–1613Protestant
Boeckel, Ernst Gottfr. AdolfGermany1783–1854ADB
Boehm, JohannGermanyd. 1535Walde
Bohemus, Johann (?identical with foregoing)Heb. grammar, Wittenberg, 1636
Boeschenstein, JohannGermany1472–1540
Boettcher, Julius FriedrichGermany1801–1863ADB
Bogáthi, Fazekas MiklósHungary1548–c 1590UnitarianMarm; Szin; Kohn; Zov.
Bohlius, SamuelGermanyd. 1639LutheranSt. 113
Bois (Boys), JohnEngland1561–1644DNB; Enc. Rel. Kn.
Bo(u)lduc, JacquesFranced. 1646CapuchinDBF; NBU
Bongetius, Jo.? Italyfl. 1717Heb. grammar, Rome, 1717
Boote (Boate, Botius, etc.), Arnold (Arnt)Holland, Ireland1600–1653 (?)Reformed Ch.DNB; NNBW 4
Boré, EugeneFrance1809–1878LazariteSt. 114; DBF; NBU
Bore(e)l, Adam (junior)Holland1603–1666 or 67St. 115; NNBW 6.
Borgwall, Andr.Sweden18th c.St. 269
Borrha(us), Martin, see Cellarius, Martin
Bosch, JacobusHollandd.c. 1771NNBW 7
Bosham, Herbert ofEngland, Franced. after 1190
Bouget, JeanFrance, Italy1692–1775DBF; NBU
Boulaese, JeanFrance1530–1579 (?)(nominal) Catholic
Bouquett, PhilipFrance, England1699–1748Huguenot (?)DNB
Bourdelot, JeanFranced. 1638St. 116; DBF; NBU
Bowman, ThomasEngland, Ireland1819–c.1882Heb. grammar, Edinburgh, 1879–82 (completed by A. H. Bowman)
Braemsonius, Anders Henriksen, see Brunchmann (Braemsonius), Anders Henriksen
Braun, JohannesGermany, Holland1628–1708Reformed Ch.Ugolini; NNBW 6
Brecht, Jo. Reinhart??LutheranParkes (from Meuschen)
Breithaupt, Johann FriedrichGermany1639–1713Lutheran
Brett, RichardEngland1567(?)–1637DNB
Brighenti, Giovann AntonioItalyd. 1702St. 118; MGWJ 1895–6, 458
Brodaeus (Broad), ThomasEnglandc.1577–1635St. 119; A. Wood, Ant. Oxon. ii, 593
Brodberg, NicholasSweden18th c.St. 269
Broughton, HughEngland, Holland1549–1612Puritan
Brown, WilliamScotland1766–1835PresbyterianDNB
Bruerne, RichardEngland1519(?)–1565DNB
Brunchmann (Braemsonius), Anders HenriksenDenmark1690–1761Dansk
Brunnerus, Jos.Germany (?)fl. 1585Heb. grammar, Freiburg, 1585
Buchanan, ClaudiusScotland, India1766–1815AnglicanDNB; EB; NBU
Bucher, Samuel FriedrichGermanyd. 1765Ugolini; NBU
Buchmann, Theodore, see Bibliander (Buchmann), Theodore
Budde (Buddeus), Joh, FranzGermany1667–1729LutheranSt.122; ADB; NBU; EB
Budny (Budnée, Budnaeus), SzymonPolandd. 1595SocinianPolski Slownik Biogr.; NBU
Buercklin, Georgius ChristianusGermany (?)17th–18th c.Heb. grammar, Frankfurt, 1699
Buettner, Christoph AndreasGermany1708–1774ADB
Bullman, E.Englandfl. 1795Heb. grammar, London, 1795
Burger, Nicol.Denmark?Heb.-Chald. Lexicon, Copenhagen, 1733
Burgh, William (de)Ireland1800–1858Heb. grammar, Dublin, 1847
Burgonovo, Archangelus de (Angiolo Pozzi)Italyfl. 1564FranciscanSt. 123; Wadding i, 13, Sbaralea Suppl. i, 101
Burleigh (Burley), FrancisEnglandd. 1619Venn
Burman, FransHolland1628–1679Reformed Ch.NNBW 4; ADB; NBU
Burrell, AndrewEnglandfl. 1739Heb. grammar, London, 1739
Bush, GeorgeU.S.A.1796–1859Presbyterian, later SwedenborgianD Am. B
Buxtorf, Johann ISwitzerland1564–1629Calvinist
Buxtorf, Johann IISwitzerland1599–1664Calvinist
Buxtorf, Johann Jacob ISwitzerland1645–1704Calvinist
Buxtorf, Johann (Jacob) IIISwitzerland1663–1732Calvinist
Bynaeus, AntoniusHolland1654–1698Reformed Ch.NNBW 6; NBU
Byng (Bing(e)), AndrewEngland1574–1651/2DNB
Bythner (Buttner), VictorinusPoland, England1605(?)–1670(?)DNB; NBU
Caddick, RichardEngland1740–1819DNB
Cademannus, Jos. Rud.Austriad. 1720St. 128
Calasio(-ius), Mario diItalyc. 1550–1620FranciscanNBU; Enc. Br. 11
Calcio, IgnazioItalyfl. 1753Heb. grammar, Naples, 1753
Calepinus, AmbrosiusItaly1455–1511Biog. Univ. 6, 392
Caligniis, Alanus Reffaut defl. 1541Heb. grammar, Paris, 1541
Callenberg, Joh. Heinr.Germany1694–1760Protestant
Calonges, Madame de??St. Z. f.H.B. xx, 67
Calov(-ius) (Kalau), Abr.Germany1612–1686LutheranADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Calvert, JamesEnglandd. 1698NonconformistNBU
Calvoer (Calvor), KasparGermany1650–1725LutheranADB; NBU
Calvert, ThomasEngland1606–1679PuritanDNB
Calvin, JeanFrance, Switzerland1509–1564Reformer
Caminero, Francisco XavierSpain?
Campen(-sis), Jan (Johannes) vanHolland, Germanyc. 1490–1538St. 129; NNBW vi, 259; NBU
Campoi, JánosHungary17th c.CalvinistKohn; Marm.
Canini(us), AngeloItaly, Greece, France1521–1557St. 130; NBU
Capito(Koepfel) Wolfgang FabriciusAlsace, Switzerland1478–1541Benedictine, turned Reformer
Capnio, see Reuchlin, Johann
Cappellanus, ClaudeFranced. 1667St. 131
Cappel(le), JacquesFrance1570–1624HuguenotNBU; Enc. Rel. Kn.
Cappel[le](-lus), LouisFrance1585–1658HuguenotNBU; Enc. Br. 11
Carpzov, Joh. Ben. IIGermany1639–1699LutheranSt. 132; NBU; ADB
Carpzov, Joh. GottlobGermany1679–1767LutheranSt. 132; NBU; ADB
Cartwright, ChristopherEngland1602–1658AnglicanSt. 133; DNB
Castell, EdmundEngland1606–1685/6Anglican
Castro, Joh. (? José) Rodriguez deSpain1739–1796 (?)St. 135; NBU
Castronovate, Jos. de?16th c. (?)St. 241
Cate, GerhardustenHolland1699–1749NNBW 4, 403
Cayet, Pierre Victor PalmaFrance1525–1610Protestant, then Catholic
Cellada, Diego (Didacus) deSpain1586–1661JesuitBibl. Comp. De Jèsus, ii, 936
Cellarius, Christ.Germany(?) 1638–1707NBU; ADB
Cellarius, Joh.Germanyfl. 1518St. 136; L. Geiger Ztschr. Gesch. Jud. Deutschl. iv, 116
Cellarius (Borrha(us)), MartinSwitzerland1499–1564B. Riggenbach, M.B., 1900; E. Bonjour, Univers. Basel, 1960
Celsius, Olaus, Sen.Sweden1670–1756St. 137; Svensk; NBU
Ceporinus (von Wisendangen) JakobSwitzerland1499–1526 (?)Hist. Biogr. Lex. Schweiz, vii, 523
Cevallerius (Chevalier), PetrusSwitzerlandfl. 1578–1594Hist. Biogr. Lex. Schweiz, ii, 560
Chatterton (Chaderton), LaurenceEnglandfl. 1611DNB
Chenery, ThomasEngland1826–1884DNB
Cher, see Hugh of St. Cher
Chéradame, JeanFrancefl. 1537
Chevalier (Cevallerius), Ant. Rud.France, England1507–1572HuguenotSt. 138; DNB; NBU
Chiarini, LuigiItaly, Poland (?)1789–1832CatholicSt. 139; NBU
Chilius, Andr.Low Countries?St. 140
Christmann, JacobGermany1554–1613St. 141; ADB; NBU
Chrysococca, Georgios, see Georgios Chrysococca
Chytraeus, Andr.Swedenfl. 1706St. (S.V. Lundius)
Chytraeus (Kochhaff), DavidGermany1530–1610ProtestantSt. 141; NBU; Geiger, Zeitschr. Gesch. Jud. Deutschl. iv, 107
Cibo, Wife of Jo. Duke of Camerino?fl. 1550Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67
Cinqarbres, Jean, see Quinquarboreus, Johannes
Ciselius, Phil. (?)Hollandfl. 1696St. 142
Cisneros, Francisco, see Ximénez (Jiménez) de Cisneros, Francisco
Clajus (Klai), JohannesGermany1535(?)–1592ADB; NBU
Clanner, J.G. (?)?fl. c. 1726St. 143
Clark (Clerke), RichardEnglandfl. 1611DNB
Clark (Clericus), SamuelEnglandfl. 1667St. 145; Bodl. Cat. 847
Clavering, RobertEngland1671–1747AnglicanSt. 144; Bodl. Cat. 847; DNB
Claymond, JohnEngland1457(?)–1537DNB; R. Loewe, Heb. Union Coll. Ann. 28, 1957
Clenardus (Cleynaerts), NicolausFlanders(?)1495–1542NNBW; BN Belg; ADB; Enc. Br. 11
Clerc (Le Clerc), Jean-ThomasSwitzerland (French)1657–1736Huguenot (Remon-strant)NNBW; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Clericus (Le Clerc), DavidSwitzerland1591–1654Hist. Biogr. Lex. Schweiz, iv, 639
Clericus, Samuel, see Clark, Samuel
Clodius, DavidGermany1644–1684LutheranADB
Clodius, Jo. Chr.Germany1676–1745St. 146; ADB; NBU
Cluverus, Jo.?17th c.St. 147
Cnollen, Adam AndreasGermany1674–1714St. 148; M. Brann, D. Kaufmann Mem. Vol., p. 392
Cnollen, Jos. Nicol.Germany17th c.St. 148
Cocceius, Johannes, see Koch, Joh.
Codde (Coddaeus), Guilh. van derHolland1575–1625 (?30)Reformed Ch.St. 150; Bodl. Cat. 848; NNBW
Collier, WilliamEngland1742–1790Venn
Collin, C.E.Germanyfl. 1705St. 151
Colomils, PaulFrance, England1638–1692Huguenot-AnglicanDNB; NBU
Colvill, Abr.Germanyfl. 1670St. (after 151)
Conant, Thomas JeffersonU.S.A.1802–1891D. Am. B. Enc. Br. 11
Connelly, ThaddeusIrelandfl. 1823Proverbs, Irish-Engl. Heb., Dublin 1823
Cornaro–Piscopia, Cornelia (?Eleonora), Lucr. HelenaItaly1646–1684NBU; Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67
Cossey (Costessey), Henry ofEnglandd. 1336FranciscanLoewe, Heb. Union Coll. Ann. 28, 1957, 212
Costus, PetrusFrancefl. 1554St. 152, Bodl. Cat. 849
Cotta, Jo.Fr.Germany1701–1779St. 153; NBU; ADB; Enc. Br. 11
Covell, JohnEngland1638–1722DNB; NBU
Cramer, Anna MariaGermany1613–1627Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67
Cramer, DanGermany1568–1637LutheranADB; NBU
Cramer, Gabriel (Elisée)Switzerland1822–1888B. Prijs, Basl. Heb. Drucke, 1964, 470, 318
Cramer, Joh. JacobSwitzerland1673–1702St. 154, Bodl. Cat. 213; Hist. Biogr. Lex. Schweiz, ii, 642; NBU; ADB
Cramer, Joh. RudolphSwitzerland1678–1737St. 155, Bodl. Cat. 849; Hist. Biogr. Lex Schweiz ii, 642; ADB; NBU
Crawford, FrancisIrelandfl. 1855Trans. Royal Ir. Acad. xxii (1855), 371 f.
Cregut(us), Ant.Switzerland (?)fl. 1660NBU
Crenius, Thom.Germany1648–1728St. 156, Bodl. Cat. 850; NBU
Crocius, Lud. Mich.Germanyfl. 1673St. 157
Croius, Jo.England18th c.St. 158
Cross, WalterEngland17th c.Br. Mus. Cat.
Csécsi, JánosHungary1689–1769CalvinistMarm; Szin; Pap.
Csekei, PálHungary18th c.CalvinistDan
Csepregi, FerencHungary1700–1758CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zovanyi
Csomos, JánosHungary1730–1768CalvinistSzin; Zovanyi
Cudworth, RalphEngland1617–1688Anglican
Cun(aeus), Peter van derHolland1586–1638Reformed Ch.NNBW; ADB; NBU
Cunitzen (Cunitia), Maria??Zeitsch. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67
Curtius, Sebastian?fl. 1645 (?)Heb. grammar, Geismar, 1645
Czuppon, GyörgyHungary1755–1820CatholicSzin.
Dachs, Friedr. Bernh.Hollandfl. 1726St. 159; Bodl. Cat. 833
D'Allemand, J.D.Germanyfl. 1837Heb. grammar, Munich, 1837
Dailing (Deyling), Sal.Germany1665(?77)–1755LutheranADB; NBU
Dalmaki, LaurentiusHungaryfl. 1643St. 124b, Nachtrag p. 120
Danz, Joh. Andr.Germany1654–1727
Dassow(-vius), Th.Germanyd. 1721St. 161; ADB
Dávid, FerencHungary1520–1579Unitarian, Sabbatarian (Davidist)Kohn; Szin; Zov; E. Kiss, 1912
Davies, BenjaminWelsh-Canadian1814–1875DNB
Davis, Johan.England(?)1625–1693DNB
Debreczeni, Petkó JánosHungary17th c.CalvinistDan
Debreczeni, Szücs JánosHungary1630–1671CalvinistZov; Dan
de Dieu, LouisHolland1590–1642CalvinistNNBW 8, 395; B.N. Belg; NBU; ADB
Delitzsch, Franz JuliusGermany1813–1890ADB; Enc. Br. 11
del Rio, Martin Ant.Flanders, Spain1551–1608JesuitB.N. Belg; NBU; ADB; Cath. Enc.
Densing, HermanHolland1654–1722NNBW 8; NBU
Dereser, Thadd. Ant.Germany1757–1827ADB; NBU
Dertsik, JánosHungary19th c.CalvinistSzin.
d'Espence, Claude, see Espencaeus, Claude
Diederichs, Jo. Christ. Wilh.Germany1750–1781NBU
Diest, Henr. vanHollandb. 1595NNBW 4, 504
Diest, Samuel vanHollandd. 1694NNBW 4, 505
Dieterich, Joh. Con.??Ugolini 30, 1278
Dietrich, Franz Ed. Chr.Germany1810–1883ADB
Dilherr, Joh. Mich.Germany1604–1669LutheranADB
Dillingham, FrancisEnglandd. 1625AnglicanDNB
Dindorf, Th. Imm.Germany?Heb. & Chald. Grammar, Leipzig, 1801
Diószegi, KalmFr PFlHungary1628–1669CalvinistSzin; Zov; Dan
Disma, P.Italyfl. 1757St. 162; Zedner, 198
Disney, WilliamEngland1751–1807DNB
Dithmar, Justus Christ.Germany1677–1737St. 163; ADB; NBU
Doederlein, Jo. Chr.Germany18th c.St. 295
Doeleke, W.H.Germanyfl. 1822Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1822
Donatus, Franc.Italyc.1598–1635DominicanSt. 165, Nachtrag p. 121
Dorothea Maria, wife of John, Duke of Saxe-WeimarGermany17th c.Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67
Dove, JohnEnglandfl. 1746St. 165 note, Bodl. Cat. 894
Dowling, Ed. DowmanEnglandfl. 1797Heb. Grammar, London, 1797
Drusius (Driesche), Joh. van den IHolland1550–1616CalvinistSt. 166, Nachtrag p.121; NBU; ADB; Enc. Br. 11
Drusius (Driesche), Joh IIEngland1588–1609St. 167, Bodl. Cat. 895
Dufour, Thom.Francefl. 1642BenedictineHeb. Grammar, Paris, 1642
Du Monin, Jean EdouardFrance1557–1586
Duncan, William WallaceEnglandfl. 1841Heb. Lexicon, London 1841
Duns Scotus, Joh.Scotland1265(?)–1308 (?)FranciscanSt. 1, 50; DNB; NBU
Dunster, HenryNew England (U.S.A.)1609–1659DNB
Du Plessis–Mornay, see Mornay, Philippe de
Easton, AdamEnglandd. 1397BenedictineSt. 1; DNB
Eath, Augustinus??G. Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr. 197, 17
Ebert(-us), Jac.Germany1549–1614St. 168; Bodl. Cat. 901; NBU
Ebert(us), Theod.Germanyd. 1630St. 169; Bodl. Cat. 901; NBU
Edzardus, EsdrasGermany1629–1708LutheranADB; NBU
Eggers, Jo.Switzerlandfl. 1719St. 170
Egidio da Viterbo, see Viterbo, Aegidius da
Einem, Joh. Justus vonGermanyfl. 1714–1736St. 171; NBU
Einsiedel, Marg. Sybilla, widow of Conrad LoeserGermanyfl. 1670Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67
Eisenmenger, Joh. Andr.Germany1654–1704Lutheran
Eisentraut, Alex., see Sancto Aquilino (Eisentraut), Alexius
Elisabeth, Abbess of PfalzGermanyd. 1680Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 67
Elius, Matth. (? apostate Jew)Germany?St. 173
Eloise, wife of AbelardFranced.c. 1163Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68
Elwert, Chr. GottliebGermanyfl. 1822Heb. Lexicon, Reutlingen, 1822
Engestroem, Jo.Swedenfl. 1733Heb. Grammar, Lund, 1733
Engotler, Jos.Austriafl. 1758Heb. Grammar, Gratz 1758
Ens, PetrusHolland18th c.NNBW 8, 487
Ercsei, DanielHungary1754–1809CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Erdósi, Sylvester JFnosHungary1504–155?CatholicMarm; Szin; Zov; János Balazs, E.S. Budapest, 1961
Erpen(-ius), Thom. vanHolland1584–1624CalvinistNNBW; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Ertel, JánosHungary1710(?)–1757LutheranVenet.; Marm; Szin; Zov.
Esenwein, M.Germany17th c.JQR, 9 (1896/97), 509–4
Esgers, Jo.Holland18th c.St. 175
Espencaeus (d'Espence), ClaudeFrance1511–1571CatholicNBU
Etheridge, John WesleyEngland1804–1866MethodistDNB
Eugubinus, see Steuco (Steuchus Eugubinus), Agostino
Ewald, Geo. Heinr. Aug.vonGermany1803–1875ADB; NBU
Faber, GeorgeGermany17th c.Heb. Grammar, Nuremberg, 1626
Faber Boderianus, see Le Fèvre de la Boderie, Guy and Nicolas
Faber Stapulensis, see Le Fèvre d'Etaples, Jacques
Fabricius, Ern. Christ.Germanyfl. 1792St. 176. Bodl. Cat. 977
Fabricius, Friedr.Germany1642–1703St. 177; NBU
Fabricius, Guido, see Le Fèvre de la Boderie, Guy
Fabricius, JánosHungary1678–1734LutheranMarm; Szin.
Fabricius, LaurentiusGermany1555–1629Lutheran (?)R. Dan, Journ. Jew. Stud. 19 (1968) 72
Fabricius, Phil. Jac.Germany17th c.St. 177, note; Bodl. Cat. 977
Fabricius, Theod.Germany1501–1570NBU
Fagius (Buchlein), PaulusFrance, England1504–1549AnglicanSt. 178; Bodl. Cat. 977, 3080; DNB; ADB; NBU
Fahländer, Jo.Sweden18th c.St. 269 (Lundius)
Fairclough, RichardEngland1553–1630Foster; Venn
Farkas, GyörgyHungary171?–1776LutheranMarm; Szin; Zov.
Farkas, JakabHungary1630–167?CalvinistSzin; Dan
Faust(-ius), Joh. Friedr.Germanyfl. 1706St. 180
Feilmoser, Adr. BenedictAustria1777–1831ADB
Fekler, Ignaz AurelAustria1756–1839LutheranB.L.K. Oest.
Fell, JohnEngland1625–1686DNB
Fell, MargaretEngland1614–1702QuakerL. Roth, Journ. Sem. Stud. 6 (1961), p. 210
Ferenczi, TobiasHungary1701–1767CatholicMarm; Szin.
Ferrand, LouisFrance1645–1699St. 181; NBU
Fessler, Ign. AureliusGermany1756–1839ADB; Enc. Br. 11
Feuardent, FrancoisFrance1539–1610Franciscan
Ficino, MarsiglioItaly1433–1499CatholicSt.A. 35b; J. Perles, Rev. Etudes Juives, 12, 244–57
Field, FrederickEngland1801–1885DNB
Figueiro, Petrus?Flandersfl. 1615St. 182, Bodl. Cat. 981
Fitz–Gerald, GeraldIrelandfl. 1799Heb. Grammar, Dublin 1799
Flavigny, Valérian deFranced. 1674NBU
Floravanti, GerónimoItaly1554–1630JesuitBibl. Comp. de Jèsus 3, 791
Fockens, Herman Fr. Th.Holland1794–1868NNBW 8, 552
Foecklerus, Jo.Hollandfl. 1658Heb. Grammar, Amsterdam, 1658
Fontanella, Franc.Italyfl. 1824Heb. Lexicon, Venice, 1824
Foreiro, FranciscoPortugal1510–1581DominicanNBU; Grande Enc. Port. e Brasil. 11 (1940), 623
Forster (Föster, Forsthemius, or Vorstheimer), JohannSwitzerland1496–1558LutheranHeb. Lexicon, Basle, 1557
Fourmont, Etienne (sen.)France1683–1745St. 183; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Fox, GeorgeEngland1624–1691QuakerDNB; L. Roth, Journ. Sem. Stud. 6 (1961), 208
Franciscus, Maria??CapuchinSt. 183b, Nachtrag p.121
Franck, SebastianGermany1499–1542St. 184; ADB; Enc. Br. 11
Franke (Francus), GregoriusGermanyfl. 1634Heb. Lexicon, Hanover, 1634
Franz, WolfgangGermany1564–1628LutheranADB
Frey, Jo. Ludw.Switzerland1682–1759St. 185; ADB; NBU
Freytag, Geo. Wilh. Friedr.Germany1788–1861ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Friedrichson, D.Germanyfl. 1871Heb. Grammar, Mainz, 1871
Frischlin, NicodemusFrance(?)1547–1590NBU; ADB; Enc. Br. 11
Frischmuth, Joh.Germany1619–1687LutheranADB; NBU
Fritsch, Ernst Aug.Germanyfl. 1838Kritik of grammar, Frankfurt, 1838
Frommann(-us), Erhard Andr.Germany1722–1774Catholic (?)St. 186; ADB; NBU
Fronmueller, ConradGermanyfl. 1679St. 186 (bis)
Fullenius, BernardusHolland1602–1657NNBW 3, 426
Fuller, NicholasEngland1557(?)–1626AnglicanSt. 187; DNB; NBU
Gaffarel(lus), JacquesFrance1601–1681CatholicSt. 188, Nachtrag p.121; NBU
Gagnier, JohnFrance, England1670(?)–1740St. 189; DNB; NBU
Galatinus, Petrus ColumnaItaly1460–1540FranciscanSt. 190, Nachtrag p. 121
Galliccioli, Joh. Baptist(Austria), Italy1733–1806CatholicB.L.K. Oest.
Garcia Blanco, AntonioSpain?
Garzias, DominicusSpainfl. 1598Catholic
Gastabled, Franciscus, see Vatable, François
Gataker, ThomasEngland1574–1654DNB; NBU
Gaudia, Barthol. ValverdioSpain?St. 192
Gaulmin, GilbertFrance1585–1665CatholicSt. 193; NBU
Gebhard, Brandanus Heinr.Germany1657–1729LutheranADB
Geitlin, Gabriel?fl. 1856Heb. Grammar, Helsingfors, 1856
Gejerus, MartinGermany1614–1680St. 194, Nachtrag p.121; ADB
Gelbe, H.Germany?Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1868
Génébrard, GilbertFrance1537–1597CatholicSt. 195, Nachtrag p.121, Bodl. Cat. 1026, Add; NBU
Gennaro, SistiItalyfl. 1747Heb. Grammar, Venice 1747
Gentius (Gentz), Georg(Germany), Holland1618–1687LutheranSt. 196, Nachtrag p.121; NNBW ix, 277; NBU
Georgios, ChrysococcaGreece1340–1356 (?)St. A. 24, Heb. Übers 629
Gerard of CremonaItalyc. 1114–1187Enc. Br. 11
Gerhard, Jo. Ernest G.Germany1621–1668
Gerhard, Jo. G.Germany1582–1637LutheranADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Germber, HermannGermanyfl. 1604St. 197, Bodl. Cat. 1009; ADB
Gerrans, R.Englandfl. 1784St. 197 (with reservations)
Gersdorff, Henrietta Kath. FriesenGermany17th c.Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68
Gesenius, Fr. Heinr. Wilh.Germany1786–1842ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Geyer (Geier), MartinGermany1614–1680LutheranSt. 194; ADB
Gezelius, Jo.Lithuania1615–1690NBU
Gibelius, Abr.?fl. 1603Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1603
Giggeius (Giggeo), Ant.Italyd. 1632St. 198, Bodl. Cat. 1018; NBU
Gill, JohnEngland1697–1771BaptistSt. 199; DNB; NBU
Giorgio (Zorzi), FrancescoItaly1460–1540FranciscanMeuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude llustr., 173, 17
Giraud, l'AbbéFrance, Polandfl. 1825Heb. Fr. Vocab., Vilna, 1825
Gireandeau, BonarFrancefl. 1758–1778Heb. Grammar & Lex., Paris, 1758, 1778
Giustiniani (Justinianus), AgostinoItaly, Francec. 1470–1536Dominican
Glaeser, Jos.Germany (?)fl. 1832Heb. Grammar, Ratisbon, 1832
Glaire, Jean BaptisteFranceb. 1798Heb. & Aramaic Grammar, Paris, 1832
Glass(-ius), SolomonGermany1593–1656LutheranADB; Enc. Br. 11
Gleichgross, GyörgyHungary1669–1712LutheranMarm; Szin; Zov.
Godwyn, ThomasEngland1587–1642AnglicanDNB; Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc. Eng. vi (1912), 58
Goez, Georg??Ugolini, 30, 1160
Goldhahn, Matth., see Aurogallus, Matth.
Golius (Gohl), Jac.Holland1596–1667CalvinistNNBW; ADB; NBU
GomarusHolland17th c.Prof. Groningen in 1630s
Gousset (Gusset), JacquesFrance, Holland1635–1704ProtestantNNBW; NBU
Graf, Karl Heinr.Germany1815–1869Enc. Br. 11
Grajal, GasparSpain16th c.Enc. Univ. Illustr. Eur.-Amer. 26, 967
Granberg, Nic.Swedenfl. 1723St. 357 (S.V. Schulten)
Grapo (Grappius), Zach.Germany1671–1713LutheranADB; NBU
Graser, ConradGermanyd. 1613St. 200
Green, WilliamEngland1714(?)–1794DNB
Gregori, Greg.??LutheranMeuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 215, 18
Greissing, BálintHungary1653–1701LutheranMarm; Szin; Zov.
Greve (Greeve), Egbert vanHolland1754–1811NBU
Grey, Lady JaneEngland1537–1554Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68
Grey, RichardEngland1694–1771DNB; NBU
Groddeck, Gabr.Germany1672–1709St. 201, Bodl. Cat. 1022; NBU
Groenewoud, Jacob Cornelis SwijghuisenHolland1784–1859Heb. Grammar, Utrecht, 1834
Groll, AdolfHungary1681–1743CatholicMarm; Szin; Zov.
Grotius (de Groot), HugoHolland1583–1645RemonstrantNNBW; NBU; ADB; Enc. Br. 11
Gualtperius, OttoGermanyfl. 1590Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1590
Guarin, PierreFrance1678–1729NBU
Guevas, Aloysa Sigaea deSpaind. 1569Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 69
Guidacerio(-ius), AgathiusItaly1477–1540CatholicSt. 202, Bodl. Cat. 1022; NBU
Guise, WilliamEngland1653(?)–1683St. 203, Bodl. Cat. 1022; DNB
Gundissalinus (Gundisalvo, Gundu-salvi) DominicusSpainfl. 1150Enc. Univ. Euro-Americana 27, 323; J.T. Muckle, De Anima of D.G., Toronto, 1940
Guertler, Nic.Germany, Holland1653/4–1711CalvinistNNBW 6, 654; ADB; NBU
Guete, Heinr. Ernst
Gusset, Jacques, see Gousset, JacquesGermanyfl. 1782Heb. Grammar, Halle, 1782
Guyenne, Madame deFrancec. 1625Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68
Gyarmathi, SamuelHungary1751–1830CalvinistVenet., Zov.
Gyarmazi, IstvánHungary17th c.CalvinistDan
Gyles, J.F.Englandfl. 1814Heb. Grammar, London, 1814–1816
Gyöngyösi de Heteny, PaulHungary, Russia1707–1769LutheranB.L.K. Oest.
Haarbrccker, Theod.Germany19th c.Continued (Halle, 1843) Schnurrer's Tanhum Yerushalmi on Judges.
Haas (Hasse), Jo. GottfriedGermany1737–1815ADB; NBU
Habeler, JakabHungary1722–1793CatholicMarm; Szin
Habermann (Avenarius), JohannesGermany1520–1590Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1562; Neu. Deutch. Biogr. 1, 467
Habert, SusannaFranced. 1633Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68
Hackspan, TheodoricGermany1607–1659St. 204, Bodl. Cat. 1025; ADB; NBU
Haener, Joh. Henr.?1682–1701LutheranBr. Mus. Cat.
Halenius, EngelbertSweden1700–1767St. 205, Bodl. Cat. 1877; no. 45; Svensk
Haller, Albrecht vonSwitzerland1708–1777St. 206; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Hamaker, Hendrik ArentHolland1789–1835NNBW; NBU
Hambraeus, JonasSweden, France1588–1671Svensk; NBU
Hamelsveld, Ysbrand vanHolland1743–1812NBU
Hamius, Jac.Germanyfl. 1624Heb. Grammar, Hamburg 1624
Hanel, MelchiorBohemiafl. 1661St. 207; Bodl. Cat. 796
Haner, GyörgyHungary1672–1740CalvinistMarm; Szin; Pap.
Hanewinkel, GerhardusGermanyfl. 1636Heb. Grammar, Bremen, 1636
Hanne(c)ken, Meno (Memnon)Germany1595–1671St. 208; ADB
Hannes, EdwardEnglandd. 1710DNB
Happelius, WigandSwitzerlandfl. 1561Heb. Grammar, Basle, 1561
Harding, JohnEnglandd. 1610Foster
Harding, StephenEngland, France1060(?)–1134CistercianTrans. Jew. Hist. Soc. Eng. 17(1953) 233; DNB; NBU
Hardt, Anton Jul. van derGermany1707–1785St. 209, Bodl. Cat. 1094
Hardt, Hermann van derGermany1660–1746LutheranSt. 210, Bodl. Cat. 1032; ADB; NBU
Hare, FrancisEngland1671–1740AnglicanDNB; NBU
Harrison, ThomasEngland1555–1631DNB
Harrison, ThomasEngland1716–1753Venn
Hart, JohnEngland?C. Roth, Bodl. Lib. Record, 7 (1966), 244
Hartmann, Ant. TheodorGermany1774–1838ProtestantSt. 213, Nachtrag p.121; ADB; NBU
Hartmann, Joh. MelchiorGermany1764–1827ADB; NBU
Hartmann, Jo. Phil.Germanyfl. 1708St. 211
Hase, Christ. Gottfr.Germanyfl. 1750Heb. Linguistic Study, Halle, 1750
Haselbauer, FranzAustria1677–1756CatholicB.L.K. Oest.
Hasse, Jo. Gottfried, see Haas, Jo. Gottfried
Hautecourt, Hen. Philipponneau deFrance, Holland1646–1715HuguenotNNBW
Havemann, Christoph.Germany17th c.St. 214
Havemann, MichaelGermany1597–1672LutheranADB
Hebenstreit, Joh. Chr.Germany1686–1756ProtestantSt. 215, Bodl. Cat. 1033; NBU
Hedmann, Cl.Sweden18th c.St. 216, Bodl. Cat. 682
Heeser, Johann.? Germanyfl. 1716Heb. & Chald. Lex., Harderov, 1716
Heidegger, Joh. Heinr.Switzerland1633–1698Reformed Ch.ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Heilbronn, AnnaHungary18th c.CalvinistMarm; Szin.
Heinsius (Heinzs), DanFlanders, Holland1580(?)–1655Reformed Ch.NNBW; B.N. Belg.; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Helen, JohnEnglandd. 1839inf. from C. Roth; his Modern Judaism untraced; Gentleman's Magazine
Hellmann, Laur.Sweden18th c.St. 137, Bodl. Cat. 1877
Helman, Andr.Sweden18th c.St. 357 (sv. Schulten)
Helmont, Joh. Baptist vanHolland1577–1644Protestant(untraced)
Helner, SamuelHungary18th c.CalvinistSt. 243, Bodl. Cat. 1582; Marm; Szin.
Heltai, GáspárHungary1520–1574CalvinistSzin; Zov; Erzsébet Székely, H.G., Budapest, 1957
Helvicus, ChristophorusGermany1581–1616Lutheran
Helwig (Helvicus)Germany1581–1617LutheranSt. 220, Nachtrag p.121, Bodl. Cat. 1038; ADB
Hempel, Ernst Wilh.Germanyfl. 1776Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1776
Henry of Hessen (Langenstein)Germany1340–1397NBU
Hepburn, (Jas.) BonaventuraScotland, Italy1573–1620MinimSt. 221, Bodl. Cat. 1382; DNB; NBU
Hertel, W. Chr.Austriafl. 1735Heb. Grammar, Gratz, 1735
Hesse, Anna Sophia vonGermanyfl. 1658CatholicZeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 66
Hetzel (Hezel), Joh. Wilh. Friedr.Germany1754–1829NBU
Heyman, JohannesHolland18th c.
Hiller(-us), Matth.Germany1646–1725ProtestantADB; NBU
Hilliger, Joh. Wilh.Germany1667–1701LutheranBr. Mus. Cat.
Hilpert, Jo.Germanyfl. 1651St. 222, Bodl. Cat. 1875
Hilvai, JánosHungary1720(?)–1769CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Hincks, EdwardIreland1792–1866DNB
Hinkelmann, Abr.Germany1652–1695St. 223; ADB; NBU
Hinlopen, JelmerHolland18th c.NNBW 8, 777
Hirth (Hirtius), Joh. Friedr.Germany1719–1784St. 224, Bodl. Cat. 1043; ADB; NBU
Hochstet(t)er, Andreas AdamGermany1668–1717ProtestantSt. 225; ADB
Hody, HumphreyEngland1659–1707DNB; NBU
Hoffmann, Jo. Ge.Germanyfl. 1767Heb. Grammar, Giessen, 1767
Holland, ThomasEnglandd. 1612DNB; C. Roth, Bodl. Lib. Record, 6 (1966), 245
Hollenberg, W.Germanyfl. 1861Heb. Grammar, Berlin 1861
Holten, AlbertGermanyfl. 1675St. 226
Hombergk, Joh. Friedr.Germany1673–1748Reformed Ch.ADB
Hommel, Karl Ferd.Germany1722–1781St. 227, Bodl. Cat. 1046; ADB; NBU
Honert, Taco Hajo van denHolland1666–1740NNBW
HonoriusScotlandfl. 1452Cistercian (?)St. A. 27
Hooght, Everardus van derHollandfl. 1686Heb. Grammar, Amsterdam 1686
Hoornbeck, Joh.Holland1617–1666Dutch Ref.NNBW; ADB
Horche, Heinr.Germany1652–1729SeparatistADB
Horne, RobertEngland1519(?)–1580DNB; L. Roth, Journ. Sem. Stud. 6 (1961), 206
Hottinger, Joh. Heinr.Switzerland1620–1667Swiss Ref.St. 228, Nachtrag p.121, Bodl. Cat. 1038; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Hottinger, Joh. Heinr. IIGermany1681–1750Swiss Ref.St. 229, Bodl. Cat. 1048; ADB; NBU
Hottinger, Joh. JakobSwitzerland1652–1735
Houbigant(-ius), Chas. Franc.France1686–1783NBU
Houting, HendrikHollandfl. 1695CalvinistSt. 230, Bodl. Cat. 1048
Hrabski, JánosHungary1625–1678CalvinistSzin; Zov.
Hubschmann, I. Matth.Germanyfl. 1751Heb. Grammar (Geschwinder Hebraer), Eisenach, 1751
Huerga, Cipriano de laSpain?Colomils, Ital. et Hisp. Orientalis, index (only).
Huet, Pierre DanielFrance1630–1721JesuitNBU; Enc. Br. 11
Hufnagel, G.F.Germanyfl. 1795St. 231, Bodl. Cat. 2720, Add. 1049
Hugh of St. CherFrance1200(?)–1263DominicanEnc. Br. 11; Smalley, Study of Bible in M. Ages 2, 398
Hugh of St. VictorFlanders, France1078(?)–1141VictorineNBU; Enc. Br. 11; Smalley, op. cit., 398
Hugo Insulanus, T.St. 232
Huldrich(-icus), Joh. Jac.Switzerland1683–1731St. 233, Bodl. Cat. 1049; NBU
Hulse(-ius), Ant.Holland1615–1685CalvinistSt. 234, Bodl. Cat. 1049; NNBW
Hulsius, PaulHolland1653–1712Dutch Ref.NNBW
Hunt, ThomasEngland1696–1774DNB; NBU
Hupfeld, Hermann Chr. Karl Friedr.Germany1796–1866ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Huré (Hureus), Car.France1639–1717JansenistNBU
Husen, Franc. vanHollandfl. 1676St. 235, Bodl. Cat. 1050
Hussgen, Johannes, see Oecolampadius, Johannes
Huszi, GyörgyHungary1710–1768CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Hutter(-us), EliasGermany1553–1607(?)ADB
Hyde (H(e)ydius), ThomasEngland1636–1703St. 236, Bodl. Cat. 1050; DNB; NBU; Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl., Index
Iken(ius), ConradGermany1689–1753St. 237, Bodl. Cat. 1054; ADB; NBU
Imbonati(-tus), Carlo GuiseppeItaly1650(?)–1696CistercianSt. 238, Bodl. Cat. 1052; NBU
Jacobi, J. Ad.Germanyfl. 1797Heb. Grammar, Jena, 1797
Jacob(s)(-bius), HenryEngland1608–1652St. 239; Foster
Jahn, Joh.Austria1750–1816ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Janvier (Januarius), RenéFrance1613–1682BenedictineSt. 240, Bodl. Cat. 1249; NBU
Jarrett, ThomasEngland1805–1882DNB
Jean François de Binans, see Binans, Jean François de
Jehne, Lebr. H.S.Germanyfl. 1790Heb. Grammar, Altona, 1790
Jenei, GyörgyHungary17th c.CalvinistDan
Jennings, DavidEngland1691–1762DissenterDNB; NBU
Jetzius, PaulGermanyfl. 1729Heb. Grammar, Stettin, 1729
Jiménez de Cisneros, Francisco, see Ximénez de Cisneros, Francisco
Johannes LuccaeItalyfl. 1406St. A. 31, 254, Nachtrag p. 87, Heb. Bibliog. xv, 39; Z.D.M.G. 25, 404
Johannson, Th. CarlDenmarkfl. 1835Heb. Grammar, Copehagen, 1835
Jones, WilliamEngland1746–1794DNB; NBU
Jong, P. deHolland1832–1890NNBW 1, 1227
Jud(ä), LeoGermany, Switzerland1482–1542ReformerADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Junius (Du Jon), Franc.France, Holland1545–1602HuguenotNNBW
Jurieu, PierreFrance, Holland1639–1713HuguenotNNBW; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Justinianus, Aug., see Giustiniani, Agostino
Juynboll, Dietrich Will. (Joh.?) vanHolland1802–1861NNBW
Kalau, Abr., see Calov(ius), Abr.
Kallai, Kopis JánosHungary1645–1681CalvinistZov; Dan
Kalmár, GyörgyHungary1726–178?CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov; Pap.
Kals, Joh. Guil.Hollandb. 1702NNBW
Kalthoff, J.A.Germanyfl. 1837Heb. Grammar, Ratisbon, 1837
Kamarási, PalHungary1693–1735CalvinistSzin; Zov; Pap.
Kampen, Jan van, see Campen(-sis), Jan van
Kaposi, SamuelHungary1660–1713CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Károlyi, GáspárHungary1529–1592CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov; K.G. Budapest, 1958
Kaszaniczky, Ádám (de Nagy Selmecz)Hungary1748–1804CatholicMarm; Szin
Katona Gelei, IstvánHungary1589–1649CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov; Károly Brassay, G.K.I. Hajdunanas, 1903
Kehe, G.J.Russia?Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr. 264, 23
Kekkermannus, Balth.Germanyfl. 1625Heb. Grammar, Hanau, 1625
Keller, Gottl. Wilh.Germany17th c.St. 243, Bold. Cat. 1582
Kelp, MártonHungary, (Germany?)1659–1694Szin; Zov; ADB
Kemink, H.H.Holland1817–1861NNBW 3, 676
Kemmel, JánosHungary1636–1685CalvinistMarm; Szin; Dan
Kennicott, BenjaminEngland1718–1783DNB; NBU
Keresztes, JószefHungary1846–1888CalvinistSzin; Zov.
Keresztesi, PálHungary1711–1734CalvinistMarm; Szin.
Kereszturi, BálintHungary1634–1680CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Kern, MihályHungary1731–1795CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Kerssenbroich, HermanusGermanyfl. 1560Heb. Grammar, Cologne, 1560
Kesler (Chesselius, Ahenarius), Joh. ConradSwitzerland1502–1574LutheranUgolini 28, 766; Enc. Rel Kn.
Keyworth, ThomasEngland1782–1852DNB
Kiber, David, see Kyber, David
Kihn, H.Germanyfl. 1885Heb. Grammar (with D. Shilling), Freiburg, 1885
Kilbye, RichardEngland1561(?)–1620DNB; NBU
King, GeoffreyEnglandc.1567–1630Venn
Kingsmill, Thos. Reg.Englandfl. 1605DNB
Kircher, AthanasiusGermany, France, Italy1602–1680JesuitSt. 244, Nachtrag p.121, Bodl. Cat. 1584; ADB; NBU
Kirschner, Conrad, see Pellicanus, Conrad
Kismarjai Weszelin, PFlHungary1600–1645CalvinistMarm; Szin; Pap; Dan
Klai, Joh., see Clajus, Johannes
Klemm, Jac. Friedr.Germanyfl. 1783Heb. Grammar, Tübingen, 1783
Klemm, Joh. Christ.Germanyfl. 1745Heb. Lex., Tübingen, 1745
Kloppenburgh, Joh.Holland1592–1652NNBW; NBU
Knipe, ThomasEngland1638–1711DNB
Knollys, ManserdEngland1599(?)–1691BaptistDNB
Knorr von Rosenroth, ChristianGermany1636–1689LutheranSt. 245, Bodl. Cat. 1586; ADB; NBU
Knowlles, RichardEnglandfl. 1600Grk. & Heb. Grammar, London, 1600
Koch, Friedr. Christ.Germanyfl. 1740Heb. Grammar, Jena, 1740
Koch (Cocceius), JohannesHolland1603–1669CalvinistSt. 149, Bodl. Cat. 847; NNBW; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Kochhaff, David, see Chytraeus, David
Kocsi Csergö, IstvánHungary1700–1726CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Kocsi Major, FerencHungary1680–1743CalvinistMarm; Szin
Kocsi Sebestyén, IstvánHungary1761–1841CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Koecher, Herm. Friedr.Germanyfl. 1783St. 246, Bodl. Cat. 1586
Koenig, Gu.Germanyfl. 1847St. 348
Koenig, Sam.Switzerland1670–1750St. 248, 332, Bodl. Cat. 245–6
Koepfel, Wolfgang Fabricius, see Capito, Wolfgang Fabricius
Koeppen, Nic.Germanyfl. 1709St. 249, Bodl. Cat. 2372
Koeppen, Nic.?fl. 1720–1730LutheranSt. 249
Köleséri, SamuelHungary1634–1683CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Komáromi, Csipkes GyörgyHungary1628–1678CalvinistKárolyi Gáspár, K.C.G. Budapest, 1940
Koolhaas, Jo. Christoph.Germanyfl. 1670Heb. Grammar, Coburg, 1670
Koolhaas, WillemHolland1709–1773Br. Mus. Cat.
Körösi, MihályHungary1706–1775CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Körösi, Uri JánosHungary1724–1796CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.; I. Goldziher, K.U.J., Budapest, 1908
Kosegarten, Joh. Gottfr. Ludw.Germany1792–1860St. 250, Bodl. Cat. 720; ADB; NBU
Krafft, KarlGermanyfl. 1839St. 251, Bodl. Cat. 1589
Kraut, PaulSwedenfl. 1703St. 252
Kromayer, Jo.Germany1576–1643NBU
Kuemmel, CasparGermanyfl. 1688Heb. Grammar, Würtzburg, 1688
Kyber (Kiber), DavidAlsace16th c.St. 253, Bodl. Cat. 1950
Kypke, Georg DavidGermany1724–1779NBU
Lakemacher, Joh. Gottf.Germany1695–1736St. 254, Bodl. Cat. 1593
Lamy, BernhardFrance1646–1715CatholicUgolini 32, 572; Enc. Rel. Kn.
Landrianij, IgnazióItaly1579–1642Catholic
Lang, KristófHungary164?–170?CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Lange, J. ChristianGermany1669(?)–1756LutheranSt. 255, Bodl. Cat. 1596; ADB; NBU
Lange(-ius), W.Germany, Italyfl. 1710St. 256, Bodl. Cat. 1596
Langenes, Henr.Hollandfl. 1720St. 257, Bodl. Cat. 1887
Langenstein, Heinr. von, see Henry of Hessen
Langier, Jo. Jac??St. 258
Lapide, Cornelius B (van den Steen)Flanders1566–1637JesuitB.N. Belg; Enc. Br. 11
Laskai, Matko JánosHungary1605–1663CalvinistSzin; Dan
Latouche, AugusteFrancefl. 1836Heb. Grammar, Paris, 1836
Laurence, RichardEngland1760–1838DNB
L'Avocat, Jean Bapt.Francefl. 1755Heb. Grammar, Paris, 1755
Layfield, JohnEnglandd. 1617DNB
Lazzarelli, LodovicoItaly1450–1500
Le Clerc, Jean Thomas, see Clerc, Jean Thomas
Lederlin, Joh. Heinr.Alsace1672–1737St. 259; ADB; NBU
Lee, EdwardEngland1482(?)–1544DNB; NBU; F. Perez Castro, Alfonso de Zamora, 1vii
Lee, SamuelEngland1625–1691PuritanDNB
Lee, SamuelEngland1783–1852DNB; NBU
Le Fèvre (Fabèr Boderianus) de la Boderie, GuyFrance, Flanders1541–1598CatholicNBU; Colomiès, Gallia Orient.; F. Secret, Le Zôhar chez… chrétiens, 139
Le Fèvre de la Boderie, NicolasFrance, Flanders1550–1613CatholicF. Secret, ibid.
Lefèvre d'Etaples (Faber Stapulensis), JacquesFrance1455(?)–1537(?)EvangelicalNBU; Enc. Br. 11
Lehmann, Ge. Heinr.Germany1619–1699St. 259b, Nachtrag p.121, Bodl. Cat. 233
Leib, ChilianGermany1471–1548St. 260, Berlin Cat. i, 53, ii, v (MS 77)
Leigh, EdwardEngland1602–1671PuritanDNB; NBU
LeLong, Jac.France1665–1721St. 261, Bodl. Cat. 1599, Addenda; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Lemoine, HenryEngland1766–1812DNB
L'Empereur, Constantin van OppyckHolland1591–1648St. 174, Nachtrag p.121, Bodl. Cat. 971 NNBW 8, 1031; ADB (S.V. Emp.)
Lent, Joh. BGermanyfl. late 17th c.Reformed Ch.Ugolini 23, 1020
Lenz, Jo. Leonh.Germanyfl. 1700St. 262
Leo, ChristopherEnglandfl. 1836Heb. Grammar, Cambridge, 1836
León, Andrés, see Zamora, Andreas de León
Leön, Luis deSpain1527–1591CatholicNBU; Enc. Br. 11
Leopold, Em. Friedr.Germanyfl. 1832Heb. & Chald. Grammar, Leipzig, 1832
Lepusculus, SebastianSwitzerland1501–1576St. 263, Bodl. Cat. 1604
Le Tartrier, AdrienFrancefl. 1586
Lethenyei, JánosHungary1723–1804CatholicMarm; Szin.
Lette, G.J.Holland1724–1760NNBW 10, 515
Leusden, Joh.Holland1624–1699CalvinistSt. 264, Leiden Cat. 3; NNBW 9, 601; NBU
Lewis, ThomasEngland1689–1749 (?)DNB
Leydekker (Leid-), MelchiorHolland1642–1721/2CalvinistSt. 265, Bodl. Cat. 1622; NNBW; NBU
Liebentanz, Mich.Germanybefore 1701LutheranUgolini 7, 1034
Lightfoot, JohnEngland1602–1675St. 266; DNB; NBU
Lindberg, Jac. ChristianDenmarkb. 1797Heb. Grammar, Copenhagen, 1822; NBU
Lippomani, MarcoItalyfl. 1440St. A. 33, Heb. Übers. 320 A. 411; MS Bodl. Neubauer 2174
Lischovini, JánosHungary166?–172?CalvinistMarm; Szin.
Lisznyai, K. PálHungary1630–1695CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Lively, EdwardEngland1545(?)–1605DNB; E. Rosenthal, Essays…S.A. Cook (ed. D.W. Thomas), 1950
Lizel, Geo.Germany1694–1761Heb. Grammar, Speyer, 1739; ADB
Lloyd, HenryEngland1795–1831Venn
Loescher, Valentin ErnstGermany1672/3–1749LutheranADB; NBU
Loeser, Margaret Sybilla, see Einsiedel, Margaret Sybilla
Losa, IsabellaSpain1491–1564Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68
Loscan, Joh. Friedr.Germanyfl. 1710St. 266a
Losius, Joh. Justus?18th c.St. 267, Bodl. Cat. 675
Losontzi Hányoki, IstvánHungary1709–1780CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Louis de Valois, of AlaisFrancefl. 1646F. Secret, Rev. Et. Juives 126 (1967), 423
Louise AmoenaGermany17th c.Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68
Lowndes, Is.?fl. 1837Heb. Grammar in Greek, Malta, 1837
Lowth (Louth), RobertEngland1710–1787DNB; NBU
Lucca, John of, see Johannes Luccae
Lucrecius, see Widmanstetter, Johann Albrecht
Ludolf, Susanna MagdalenaGermanyfl. 1700Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68
Ludovicus Sancti Francisci, see São Francisco, Luiz de
Ludwig (Ludovicus,-ci), Christ. L.Germany1663–1732St. 268, Bodl. Cat. 1632
Lull(-ius) (Lully), RaimonSpain1235(?)–1315St. A. 33, Hebr. Übers. 475; NBU; Enc. Br.11
Lund, DavidSweden1666–1747LutheranSt. 269, Bodl. Cat. 274; NBU
Lund, JohnDenmark1638–1684LutheranADB
Luther, MartinGermany1483–1546ReformerADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Lyre (Lyra), Nicholas de, see Nicholas de Lyre (Lyranus)
McCaul, AlexanderIreland, Englandc. 1799–1863AnglicanSt. 270, Bodl. Cat. 871, 1844; DNB
Macha, Joh.Austria1798–1845 (?)CatholicB.L.K. Oest.
Mádi, JánosHungary1705–1772CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Madrigal, Alfonso Tostado, see Tostado, Alfonso de Madrigal
Magnus, GyörgyHungary1645–171?CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Mai, Joh. Heinr. (jun.)Germany1688–1732St. 271, Hamburg Cat. vi
Major, JózsefHungary1739–1790LutheranSzin.
Makai, GergelyHungary17th c.CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov.
Malamina, CaesarItalyfl. 1774St. 272 (+293 suppl.)
Maldonado, Juan deSpain1533–1583JesuitEnc. Univ. Illustr. Eur.-Amer. 32, 498
Mall, SebastianGermanyfl. 1808Heb. Grammar, Landshut, 1808
Manetti, GianozzoItaly1396–1459St. A. 35, Nachtrag p. 87; NBU
Manfred Hohenstaufen, King of SicilyItaly1233–1266St. A. 34, Heb. Übers, 268; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Manger, Samuel HendrikHolland1735–1791NNBW 9, 644
Manjacoria, NicholasItalyfl. 1145CistercianR. Loewe, Cambr. Hist. of Bible, ii, ed. G. Lampe, 1969, 144 f.
Mansperger, Joseph JulianAustria1724–1788CatholicB.L.K. Oest.
Mara (Mare), William de (la)England, Francefl. 1280FranciscanDNB; R. Loewe, op. cit., 149f.
Marchina, MariaItalyd. 1646Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68
Marck, Joh. vanHolland1655/6–1731CalvinistNNBW
Maria Eleonore, wife of Ludwig Philipp of PfalzGermanyfl. 1669Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68
Maria Elizabeth, daughter of Christian AlbrechtGermany(?)1680–1741Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68 +B.N. Belg. (M.E. Theresa Josephine)
Mariana, Juan deSpain1536–1624JesuitNBU; Enc. Br. 11
Marini, MarcoItaly1541–1594AugustinianSt. 273
Marlorat(-us) du Pasquier, AugustinFrancec. 1506–1562 (? 3)Reformer, (Calvinist)NBU
Marperger, Bernhard W.Germany1682–1746LutheranADB
Marsham, JohnEngland1602–1685DNB; NBU
Marsilius Ficinus, see Ficino, Marsiglio
Marti, Benedictus, see Aretius, Benedictus
Martinet, A.Germanyfl. 1873Heb. Grammar (with G. Rigeler), Bamberg, 1873
Martinez, MartinusFrancefl. 1548Heb. & Aramaic Grammar, Paris, 1548
Martinez Cantalapiedra, MartinSpain?untraced
Martini, Christoph. Sam.? Germany?LutheranMeuschen, Novum Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 212, 18
Martini, Jo. BenjaminGermanyfl. 1710Meuschen, 266, 25; Br. Mus. Cat.
Martini, Raimundo (Raymond)Spaind. 1282Dominican
Martinius, PetrusFrancefl. 1568ProtestantHeb. Grammar, Paris, 1568
Martinus, Dirck (Theodoricus) MartensFlandersfl. c. 1520Heb. Lex., Louvain, c.1520
Mártonfalvi, Tóth GyörgyHungary1635–1681CalvinistSzin; Zov; Dan.
Martyr, Peter (Pietro Martire Vermigli)Italy, Alsace, England, Switzerland1500–1562Augustinian, turned ReformerDNB; NBU
Masclefius, Franc.France1662–1728NBU
Masius (Maes), AndreasFlanders, Italy1514/5–1573(nominal) CatholicB.N. Belg.; ADB
Matthias Aquarius?fl. 1581St. 274, Nachtrag p. 121
Matthias, Elias GermanusGermany?St. 275; Monats. Gesch. u. Wiss. Jud., 1895/6, 280
Maurer, Fr. J.V.D.Germanyfl. 1851Heb. & Chal. Lex., Stuttgart, 1851
Mayr, GeorgeGermany1565–1623NBU; Heb. Grammar, Ausburg, 1616
Medgyesi, PFlHungary1605–1663CalvinistVenet.; Szin; Zov; Dan
Meelfuehrer Joh. M.Germany1570–1640St. 276, Nachtrag p.122; D. Kaufmann Mem. Vol., 462
Meetkerke, EdwardEngland1590–1657DNB
Megerlin, David Fr.Germanyd. 1778St. 277
Meier, Ernst Hein.Germany1813–1866Heb. Lex. Mannheim, 1845
Meinhart, Geo. Friedr.Germany1651–1718LutheranUgolini, 23, 812
Meinigius, Christ. Gottl.Germanyfl. 1712Heb. Lex., Leipzig, 1712
Melanchthon (Schwarzerd), PhilippGermany1497–1560Reformer
Melchior, Alb. Wilh.Germany1685–1738NNBW
Melchior, Joh.Germany1646–1689ADB
Melius, Juhász PéterHungary1536–1572CalvinistKohn; Marm; Szin; Zov.
Mellissander, CasparusFlandersfl. 1586Heb. Grammar, Antwerp, 1586
Menochio, Giovanni StefanoItaly1575/6–1655JesuitNBU
Menschen, Gerhard, see Meuschen, Gerhard
Merc(i)er (Mercerus), JeanFranced. 1570St. 278, Bodl. Cat. 1748; NBU
Metcalfe, RobertEngland1590(?)–1652DNB
MetzlarHolland19th c.untraced
Meuschen (Menschen, Musculus), GerhardGermany1680–1743NBU
Meyer (Meier), Joh.Holland(?)1651–1725 (?)CalvinistSt. 279, Bodl. Cat. 1753; NNBW
Meyer (Mayer), Joh. Fr.Germany1650–1712LutheranADB; Ugolini, 1, 378, 23, 792
Michaelis, Joh. DavidGermany1717–1791ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Michaelis, Joh. Heinr.Germany1668–1738St. 280; ADB; NBU
Midhorp, Joh.?fl. 1562St. 281, Bodl. Cat. 552 (no. 3562a)
Mieg, Joh. Fried.Germany1642–1691 (?)St. 282; Rev. Et. Juives 20, 266; ADB
Mill, DavidHolland1692–1756CalvinistSt. 283, Bodl. Cat. 1756; NNBW
Mill, Joh.England1645–1707DNB; NBU; Ugolini 6, 1145
Mill, William HodgeEngland1792–1853DNB
Milner, JohnEngland1628–1702Non-jurorDNB; NBU
Milton, JohnEngland1608–1674PuritanDNB; L. Roth, Journ. Sem. Stud. 6 (1961), 213
Mirandola, Giovanni Pico dellaItaly1463–1494
Misztótfalusi, Kis MiklósHungary1650–1702CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov; Zador Tordai, M.K.M., Budapest, 1965
Mitternacht, Jo. Seb.Germanyfl. 1645Heb. Grammar, Jena, 1645
Moeller, Helena Sybilla WagenseilGermanyfl. 1700Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 69
Molinaea, Maria?17th c.Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68
Molitor, Christoph.Germanyfl. 1659St. 285
Moller, DanielGermany, Hungary1642–1712CalvinistMarm; Szin; NBU; ADB
Molnar, JánosHungary1757–1819CalvinistVenet; Szin; Zov.
Molza–Porrino, TarquiniaItaly(?)1542–1617Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68; NBU
Montagnana, PetrusItalyfl. 1478St. A. 40
Montaldi, Jos.Italyfl. 1789Heb. & Chald. Lex., Rome, 1789
Montano, Benito Arias, see Arias Montano, Benito
Montfalcon(-ius), Bern. deFrance, Italy1655–1741St. 286, Bodl. Cat. 1758; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Moonen, ArnoldHolland1644–1711Reformed Ch.NNBW
More, AlexanderScotland1616–1670CalvinistDNB; NBU
Moré, EugéneFrancefl. 1837
More, HenryEngland1614–1687St. 288, Bodl. Cat. 2804, no. 6409b; DNB; NBU
Morgan, RobertEngland1665–1745S. Levy, Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl. Misc. 4 (1942)
Morgan, WilliamWales1540(?)–1604DNB
Morin, JeanFrance1591–1659Protestant, converted to CatholicismSt. 287; NBU
Morini, StephanusFrance, Holland1624/5–1700Catholic (?)NNBW 10, 651; NBU
Mornay, Philippe de (Du Plessis–Mornay)France1549–1623HuguenotNBU; NNBW; Enc. Br. 11
Moser, Ph. N.Germanyfl. 1795Heb. & Chald. Lex., Ulm, 795
Mosheim, Joh. Lorenz vonGermanyc. 1694–1755LutheranADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Mott, JohnEnglandfl. 1740?=J.M. (Thurston, 1699-1776); Venn
Moyne, Etienne leFrance, Holland1624–1689HuguenotNNBW 10, 634
Mudge, ZacharyEngland1694–1769DNB
Muenden, ChristianGermany1684–1741ADB
Muenster, SebastianGermany, Switzerland1489–1552Franciscan, turned LutheranSt. 292, Nachtrag p.122, Bodl. Cat. 2012 f; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Muhl, Jos.Germany?St. 290
Muhle(-ius), Hein.Germany1666–1730/2LutheranSt. 289, Bodl. Cat. 2004; ADB
Muis, Simon Marotte deFrance1587–1644St. 291, Bodl. Cat. 2009; NBU
Muller, AugustGermanyfl. 1878Heb. Grammar, Halle, 1878
Muller, Joh. Mart.Germany1722–1781LutheranADB; NBU
Muller, Ludw. ChristianGermany1734–1804 (?)ADB; NBU; Heb. Grammar in Danish, Copenhagen, 1834
Muntinge, HermanHolland1752–1824NNBW
Murner, ThomasAlsace1475–1537 (?)FranciscanSt. 293, Bodl. Cat. 2017; NBU; ADB; Enc. Br. 11
Musculus, see Meuschen, Gerhard
Myerlin, David Fr.Germanyd. 1778untraced
Mylius, AndreasGermanyfl. 1639Heb. Syntax, Königsberg, 1639
N. (G.N.), see Norwich, William
Naegelsbach, Carl W.E.Germany(?)1806–1859ADB; Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1856.
Nagel, Joh. Andr. Mich.Germany1710–1788St. 295, Nachtrag p. 122, Bodl. Cat. 2030; ADB
Nagy, JánosHungary19th c.CalvinistSzin.
Nánási, Lovász JózsefHungary1701–1757CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov; Dan
Neale (Nelus), ThomasEngland1519–1590 (?)St. 296; Bodl. Cat. 2059; DNB
Neander, Conradus Burgens.Germanyfl. 1589Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1589
Nebrija, Antonio deSpain15th–16th c.B. Hall, in Studies in Church Hist. 5 (ed. G.J. Cuming), 1969, 125, 134
Neckam (Nequam), AlexanderEngland, France1157–1217BenedictineLoewe, Med. & Renaissance St., 4, 1958, 17f.
Nerrelter, DavidGermanyfl. 1700Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 221, 18
Newcome, HenryIreland, England1729–1800DNB; NBU
Newton, James WilliamEnglandfl. 1808Heb. Grammar, London, 1808
Nicholas de Lyre (Lyranus)France(?)1270–1340Franciscan
Nicholas of Manjacoria, see Manjacoria, Nicholas
Nicholson, I.Englandfl. 1836tr. Ewald's Heb. Grammar, London, 1836
Nicolai, Jo. Fried.Germany1639–1683ADB
Nifanius, ChristianGermany1629–1689LutheranADB
Niger (Nigri), Peter, see Schwarz, Peter
Niger, RadulphusEngland13th c.St. A. 46
Niloe, Jac.??Reformed Ch.Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 252, 19 Noble, James
Nolde, ChristianDenmark, Hollandfl. 1650–1680LutheranMeuschen, op. cit. 202, 18
Norberg, OlavSwedenfl. 1708St. 269, Bodl. Cat. 2372
Norrellius, Andr.Sweden1677–1749St. 298, Bodl. Cat. 2804; Svensk
Norwich, William (=G.N.)Englandd. 1675St. 294, Bodl. Cat. 1875, no. 28
Novarini, AloysiusItaly1594–1650NBU
Novenianus, Phil.Germany (?), Francefl. 1520St. 299; Heb. Grammar, Paris, 1520
Oberleitner, Franz XavierAustria1789–1832BenedictineB.L.K. Oest.
O'ByrneEnglandc. 1800"Prof." Heb., Swansea
Occitanus, Andreas Real, see Realis Occitanus, Andreas
Ockley, SimonEngland1678–1720DNB; NBU
Odhelius, Laur.Sweden(?)1664–1721 (?)St. 300
Oecolampadius (Hussgen, Husschein) JohannesSwitzerland1482–1531Reformer
Offerhaus, Christiaan GerhardHolland18th c.untraced
Offredus, Ludovica SaracenaFrancefl. 1606Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 69
Olearius (Oelschlaeger), GothofredGermany1604/5–1685LutheranADB; NBU
Olearius (Oelschlaeger), JohannesGermany1546–1623LutheranADB
Olshausen, JustusGermany1800–1882ADB
Onderliczka, JánosHungary18th c.CalvinistMarm; Szin.
Opfergeld, Friedr.Germany1668–1746St. 301, Bodl. Cat. 2078; ADB
Opitz, Heinr.Germany1642–1712LutheranADB; NBU
Opitz, Joshua Heinr.Germany1542–1585LutheranMeuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr. 18, 15; ADB
Opitz (Opitius), Paul Friedr.Germany1684–1745St. 302; ADB; NBU
Orchell, FranciscoSpain?untraced
Osborn, WilliamEnglandfl. 1845Heb. Lex., London, 1845
Osiander, Luc.Germany1534–1604ADB; Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1569
Osterbröck, Aggaeus??St. 303
Otho (Otto), Joh. Heinr.Switzerlandd. 1719St. 304, Bodl. Cat. 2080
Otrokócsi, Fóris FerencHungary1648–1718CatholicVenet.; Szin; Zov; Pap; Ferenc Fallenbuechl O.F.F., Esztergom, 1899
Otto, GottliebGermanyfl. 1788Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1788
Ouatablé, Franciscus, see Vatable, François
Ouseel (Oisel, Loisel), Phil.Germany1671–1724St. 305; NBU
Outhuijs, GerritHollandfl. 1822trs. J. Lelong on Polyglot
Outram (Owtram), WilliamEngland1626–1679DNB
Outrein, Johan. d'Holland1662–1722NNBW
Overall, JohnEngland1560–1619DNB
Owmann, Mart. Jac.Germanyfl. 1705St. 306
Paggi, AngioloItalyfl. 1863Heb. Grammar, Florence, 1863
Pagnini(-nus, -no), Santes (Xanctes)Italy, Francec.1470–1536DominicanSt. 307; NBU
Palkovic, GeorgAustria1769–1850LutheranB.L.K. Oest.
Palm, Joh. Henricus van derHolland1763–1840NNBW
Palmroot, Johan.Sweden1659–1728St. 308, Bodl. Cat. 2083; Svensk
Pareau, Jean HenriHolland1761–1833NNBW
Parkhurst, JohnEngland1728–1797DNB; NBU
Parschitius, DanielGermanyfl. 1662Heb. Grammar, Rostock, 1662
Pasini(-nus), Giuseppe LucaItaly1687–1770St. 309; NBU
Pasor, MatthiasHolland, England1599–1658NNBW; DNB; ADB; NBU
Pastritius, Joh.??St. 310
Pataki, IstvánHungary1640–1693CalvinistSzin; Dan.
Patzschius, H.D.Germanyfl. 1778Heb. Grammar, Lcneburg, 1778
Paul (Paolo)Sicilyfl. 1475Dominican?St. after 310, Nachtrag, p. 87
Paulinus, SimonSweden (?)fl. 1692Heb. Grammar, Abo, 1692
Pause, Jean de la, see Plantavit(ius) de la Pause, Jean
Péchi, SimonHungaryc.1565–1642Sabbatarian (Unitarian)
Pedro, Dom, Emperor of BrazilPortugalI 1798–1834NBU; Enc. Br. 11
II 1825–1891
Pellican(-us Rubeaquensis; Kirschner, Kürsner), ConradAlsace, Switzerland1478–1556Franciscan, later ZwinglianSt. 311, Nachtrag p. 122; ADB; Enc. Br. 11
Penaforte, Raymundo ofSpainc.1180–1275DominicanNBU
Penne, JacobusFrancefl. 1699F. Secret, Rev. Ét. Juives 126(1967), 429
Pepercorne, James WattsEnglandfl. 1840S. Levy, Misc. Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl. 4, 1942, 78
Pereszlényi, PálHungary17th c.CatholicVenet.; Szin.
Perez Bayer, Franc.Spain1711–1794Enc. Univ. Illustr. Eur.-Amer. 43, 665
Peringer, GustavSweden1651–1710St. 312; Svensk
Peritz, IsmarU.S.A.19th c.untraced
Pertsch, W.H.F.Germanyfl. 1720LutheranSt. 313, Bodl. Cat. 2095
Peter of AlexandriaItaly (?)1342AugustinianSt. A. 38
Peter Niger (Nigri), see Schwarz, Peter (Nigri)
Peter of St. OmerFrancefl. 1296St. A. 42, Heb. Übers. 610
Petermann, H.Germanyfl. 1868Heb. Formenlehre nach… Samaritaner, Leipzig, 1868
Petit, Pietro Giovanni deItalyd. 1740St. 314
Petit, Sam.France1594–1643Colomils, Gallia Orient. 169f; NBUColomils, Gallia Orient. 169f; NBU
Petraeus, Nic.Denmarkfl. 1627Heb. Grammar, Copenhagen, 1627
Petraeus, SeverusDenmarkfl. 1642Heb. Grammar, Copenhagen, 1642
Pettersson, J.Swedenfl. 1829Heb. Grammar, Lund, 1829
Pfalz, Elisabeth of, see Elisabeth, Abbess of Pfalz
Pfeiffer, AugustusGermany1640–1698LutheranSt. 315, Bodl. Cat. 2098; ADB; NBU
Pfeiffer, Aug. Fr.Germany1748–1817ADB; NBU
Philippe, E.Francefl. 1884Heb. Grammar, Paris, 1884
Philipps, Will. Thos.Englandfl. 1830Heb. Grammar, Bristol, 1830
Picinello, FelipeSpain (?), Italy?Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 196, 18
Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni, see Mirandola, Giovanni Pico della
Picques, L.Francefl. 1670St. 316
Pike, SamuelScotlandfl. 1802Heb. Lex., Glasgow, 1802
Pilarik, AndrésHungary1640–1702CalvinistSzin; Zov; Dan
Pilarik, EsaiasGermany (?)fl. 1677Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1677
Pilarik, IstvánHungary1644–1717CalvinistSzin; Zov; Dan
Piscator (Fischer), Johan.Germany1546–1625ADB
Pistorius (de Nida), Joannes NidanusGermany1546–1608Protestant, later CatholicSt. 317, Bodl. Cat. 2406; ADB; NBU
Placus, AndreasAustriafl. 1552Heb. Grammar, Vienna, 1552
Plantavit(ius) de la Pause, JeanFrance1576–1651Protestant, later Catholic
Plato of Tivoli (Tiburtinus)Spainfl. 1116St. A. 44, Heb. Übers. 971; NBU
Pocock(e), EdwardEngland1604–1691DNB; Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl. index, s.v.
Pocock(e), EdwardEngland1648–1727DNB
Pontack(-ous), ArnoldFranced. 1605St. 319, Bodl. Cat. 2110
PontackEngland(?)1638–1720 (?)DNB
Pontus de Tyard, see Tyard, Pontus de
Po(o)le, MatthewEngland1624–1679DNB; NBU
Porter, Joh.Ireland, England1751–1819Venn
Porter, John ScottIreland, England1801–1880UnitarianDNB
Postel(-lus), GuillaumeFrance, Italy1510–1581(expelled) Jesuit, later hereticSt. 320, Bodl. Cat. 2111; F. Secret, Le Zôhar chez… Kabbalistes chrétiens, 1958, 140; NBU
Prache, HilaricGermany, England1614–1679St. 321
Prado, Laur. Ramirez deSpain?Colomiés, It. et Hisp. Orientalis, index (only)
Praetorius, Abdias (Gottschalk Schultz)Germany1524–1575ADB; Heb. Grammar, Basle, 1558
Preiswerk, S.Switzerland (?)fl. 1838Heb. Grammar, Geneva, 1838
Prideaux, HumphreyEngland1648–1724St. 322, Bodl. Cat. 2112; DNB; NBU
Prosser, JamesEnglandfl. 1838Heb. Grammar, London, 1838
Pruckner, Andr.Germany1650–1680Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 201, 18
Prufer, K.E.Germanyfl. 1847Kritik of Heb. Grammatology, Leipzig, 1847
Pusey, Edw. BouverieEngland1800–1882DNB
Puteus, Archangelus Burgonovo, see Burgonovo, Archangelus de
Quadros, Diego (Didacus) deSpain, Italyfl. 1733Heb. Grammar, Rome, 1733
Quenstedt, Joh. AndreasGermany1617–1688LutheranADB; NBU
Quinquarboreus (Cinqarbres), JohannesFranced. 1587CatholicSt. 323, Bodl. Cat. 2127; NBU
Quirinus, Laurus?fl. 1462–1471St. A. 45
Quistorp, Johann. (sen.)Germany1584–1648ADB
Rabe, Joh. Jac.Germany1710–1798St. 324; ADB
Rachelius, Joach.Germany(?)1618–1669Heb. Grammar, Rostock, 1615; ADB; NBU
Ráczböszörményi, JánosHungary1649–1677CalvinistSzin; Zov; Dan
Raedt, Al(h)art deHolland(?)1645–1699 (?)NNBW
Rainolds (Reynolds), JohnEngland1549–1607DNB; NBU
Ransom, SamuelEnglandfl. 1843Heb. Grammar, London, 1843
Raphelengius, FranciscusNetherlands1539–1597Catholic, later CalvinistSt. 325, Heb. Übers. 653, Bodl. Cat. 2130, 3084; B.N. Belg; ADB
Rau (Ravis, Ravius), ChristianGermany, England, Sweden1613–1677DNB; NBU; NNBW
Rau, Joach. Just.Germanyfl. 1739Heb. Grammar, Königsberg, 1739
Rau, SeebaldGermany, Holland1721–1818NNBW; NBU; ADB
Rau, Seebald Fulco Johan.Holland1765–1807NNBW; NBU
Ravelingen, François van, see Raphelengius, Franciscus
Raymund Martini, see Martini, Raimundo
Raymund de Penaforte, see Penaforte, Raimundo of
Real(-is) Occitanus, AndreasFrance, Hollandfl. 1646FranciscanF. Secret, Rev. Ét. Juives, 126, 423
Reimann, Jacob. Friedr.Germany1668–1743ADB
Reina, Casidoro de laSpain?Bible translator
Reineccius, Chr.Germany1668–1752St. 326; ADB
Reinke, LaurentGermany1797–1879CatholicHeb. Grammar, Munster, 1861; ADB
Reiske, JohannGermany(?)1641–1701LutheranADB; NBU
Reiske, Joh. JacobGermany1716–1774St. 327; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Reland, AdrianHolland1676–1718CalvinistSt. 328, Bodl. Cat. 2137; NNBW; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Renan, Joseph ErnestFrance1823–1892Lapsed Catholic
Rendtorf, Joh.Germany?St. 329
Reuchlin, AntoniusGermanyfl. 1554St., Bodl. Cat. 1142, no. 2
Reuchlin (Capnio), JohannGermany1455–1522
Reudenius, Ambr.Germanyfl. 1586Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1586
Révai, MiklósHungary1740–1807CalvinistSzin; Zov; Jòzsef Melich, R.M., Budapest, 1908
Reyher, C.Germanyfl. 1825Heb. Grammar, Gotha, 1825
Reynolds, John, see Rainolds (Reynolds), John
Rezzonius, Franc. (sen.)Italy1731–1780St. 331; Assemani, Cat. Vat. xivii
Rhenferd. Jac.Holland1654–1712LutheranSt. 332, Bodl. Cat. 2140; NNBW; NBU
Ribera, Francisco de?1537–1591Jesuit
Richard of St. VictorScotland, France12th c.VictorineB. Smalley, Study of Bible in Mid. Ages. 2, 1952, 106f.
Richardson, JohnEnglandc.1564–1625DNB
Richart?fl. 1335DominicanSt. A. 49
Riegler, G.Germanyfl. 1835Heb. Grammar, Bamberg, 1835
Ries, Dan. Christ.Germanyfl. 1787Heb. Grammar, Mainz, 1787
Riesser, Joh.Germanyfl. 1692Heb. Grammar, Marburg, 1692
Rigelet, G.Germanyfl. 1873Heb. Grammar (with A. Martinet), Bamberg, 1873
Ritmeier, Chr. Hen.Germanyfl. 1697St. 333, Bodl. Cat. 2312, 2146
Rivet, AndréFrance, Holland1573–1651CalvinistNNBW; ADB; NBU
Rivinus, Tileman AndreasGermany1601–1656St. 334, Bodl. Cat. 2148
Ro(h)an, Anna Princess ofFrance(?)1584–1646Reformed Ch.Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 69; NBU
Robertson, JamesScotland1714–1795DNB
Robertson, WilliamEnglandd.c. 1680DNB
Roblik, EliasAustria1689–1765Catholic (secular priest)B.L.K. Oest.
Robustellus, Jos. W.Italyfl. 1655St. 335
Rodriguez de Castro, JoséSpain1730–1799Enc. Univ. Illustr. Eur.-Amer. 51, 1282
Rogers, JohnEngland1778–1856DNB
Rohrbacher, René Franc.France(?)1789–1846Heb. Grammar, Metz, 1843; NBU
Roht, Eberhard RudolfGermany?LutheranUgolini 29, 568
Rolle (Rooles, Roales), RobertEnglandfl. 1555–1585Roth, Bodl. Lib. Record, 7, 1966, 243; Foster
Romaine, WilliamEngland1714–1795DNB; NBU
Römer, Maria Barbara Lehmann vonGermanyfl. 1700Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 68
Ron, Joh.Englandfl. 1637Heb. Grammar, London, 1637
Ronnow, Magn.Holland (?)fl. 1690St. 336, Bodl. Cat. 239
Roorda, TacoHollandb. 1801Heb. Grammar, Leiden, 1831
RosenbergiusGermanyfl. 1590Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1590
Rosenmuller, E.F.C.Germanyfl. 1822Heb. & Chald. Lex., Halle, 1822
Rosenroth, Chr. Knorr von, see Knorr von Rosenroth, Christian
Röser, JakabHungary1641–1689CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov
Rosselius, PaulGermanyfl. 1618Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1618
Rossi, Giovanni Bern. deItaly1742–1831St. 337, Bodl. Cat. 2151, Add.; NBU; Filippo-Ugoni, Della Litteratura Ital., appendix
Rota, OrazioItalyfl. 1775
Row, JohnScotland(?)1598–1672 (?)DNB
Rowley, AlexanderEnglandfl. 1648Haber la-talmidim, London, 1648
Roy, ?U.S.A.fl. 183?Heb. Lex., N.Y., 183?
Rubeaquensis, Pellicanus, see Pellican, Conrad
RuckersfelderHolland18th c.untraced
Rumelinas, Ge. BurchardGermanyfl. 1716Lex. Biblicus, Frankfurt, 1716
Rus, Johann ReichardGermany1679–1738LutheranMeuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr. 94, 15, 18
Ruschat, Abr.Hollandfl. 1707Heb. Grammar, Leiden, 1707
Rutgers, AntonieHolland1805–1884NNBW 2, 1244
Sa, Manoel dePortugal, Italy1530–1596JesuitNBU
Sacy, Antoine-Isaac Sylvestre deFrance1758–1838St. 33, Bodl. Cat. 2257; NBU
Sadler, JohnEngland1615–1674PuritanDNB
St. Cher, Hugh of, see Hugh of St. Cher
Salchli, Joh. Jac.Switzerland1694–1774St. 339; ADB
Salmeron, AlfonsoSpain, Ireland1515–1585JesuitNBU; Enc. Br. 11
Salome, S.C.Englandfl. 1825Heb. Grammar, London, 1825
Sanden, Bernh. von (sen.)Germany1636–1703LutheranADB
Sanden, Bernhard von (jun.)Germany1666–1721LutheranADB
Sanctius (Sanches), CasparSpain1553–1620JesuitMeuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr. 181, 17
Sancto Aquilino (Eisentraut), AlexiusGermany1732–1785CarmeliteHeb. Grammar, Heidelberg, 1776; ADB
Sandbichler, AloisAustria1751–1820AugustinianB.L.K. Oest.
São Francisco, Luiz dePortugalfl. 1586Franciscan
Saravia, Hadrian aFrance, Holland, England1531–1613HuguenotDNB; NNBW; B.N. Belg; NBU
Sarchi, PhilipAustria, Englandfl. 1824Essay on Heb. Poetry, London, 1824
Sartorius, Joh.Holland1500–1570 (?)NNBW; ADB
Sartorius, Joh.Hungary1656–1729 (?)Calvinist (?)St. 340; Dan; ADB
Saubert, JohannGermany(?)1638–1688 (?)LutheranSt. 341, Bodl. Cat. 2505; ADB
Saurin, JacquesHolland, England1677–1730HuguenotNNBW; NBU
Scaliger, Joseph JustusFrance, Holland1540–1609CalvinistS. Reinach, Rev. Ét Juives 88, 1929, 171f; NNBW; ADB; Enc. Br. 11
ScerboItalyfl. 1888Heb. Grammar, Florence, 1888
Schaaf, CarolusGermany, Holland1646–1729Heb. Grammar, Leiden, 1716; NNBW
Schach (Scacchi), Fortunato(-tus)Italy1570–1640AugustinianUgolini 32, 806
Schadaeus, EliasAlsacefl. 1591Heb. Grammar, Strasbourg, 1591
Schaefer, Lud. Christoph.Germanyfl. 1720Heb. Lex., Berburg, 1720
Schauffler, Wilh. Gottl.Germany, U.S.A.1798–1883Heb. Grammar in Span., Smyrna, 1852; D Am. B
Scheidt (Scheidius), Balth.Alsace1614–1670LutheranSt. 342; ADB
Scheidt (Scheidius?), EverardHolland1742–1794Heb. Grammar, Harderwick, 1792; NNBW
Scheltinga, TheodorusHolland1703–1780NNBW 9, 975
Scherlogus, Paul??CatholicMeuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 24, 14–17
Scherping, JacobSwedenfl. 1737St. 343
Scher(t)zer(-us), Joh. AdamGermany1628–1683St. 344, Bodl. Cat. 2563; ADB
Schi(c)k(h)ard(us), WilhelmGermany1592–1635LutheranSt. 345, Bodl. Cat. 2564; ADB; NBU
Schindler, ValentinGermanyd. 1604St. 346, Bodl. Cat. 2566; ADB
Schleidan (Sleidanus), Joh.Germany1506/7–1556Catholic, later LutheranADB; NBU; B.N. Belg; Enc. Br. 11
Schleusner, Joh. Friedr.Germany1759–1831ADB
Schlevogt (Slevogt), PaulGermany1596–1655LutheranADB (Slevogt)
Schmid, AntonAustria1765–1855CatholicB.L.K. Oest.
Schmidt, Joach. Friedr.Germanyfl. 1708Heb. Grammar, Frankfurt, 1708
Schmidt, Johan. Andr.Germany1652–1726LutheranADB; Meuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude llustr., 73, 15
Schmidt, Karl BenjaminGermanyfl. 1789Heb. Grammar, Lemgo, 1789
Schmied(t), Sebast.Alsacefl. 1656LutheranSt. 347, Bodl. Cat. 2568
Schnabel, Hieronymus Wilh.??Meuschen, op. cit. 255, 19
Schnelle(-lius), SebaldGermany1621–1651St. 348, Bodl. Cat. 2569
Schnurrer, Christ. Friedr.Germany, England1724–1822St., Bodl. Cat. 2668; ADB
Schoettgen, Johan. ChristianGermany1687–1751LutheranSt. 350
Scholl(-ius), J.C.F.Germany?Hebr. Laut. u. Formenlehre, Leipzig, 1867
Scholz, HermannGermanyfl. 1867St. 351; NNBW B.N. Belg; ADB; NBU
Schotanus, Christ.Holland1603–1671Reformed Ch.
Schottanus, Andr.Flanders, Spain, France, Italy1552–1629JesuitSt. 349, Bodl. Cat. 2572; ADB
Schramm, David (Agricola)?fl. 1615Heb. Grammar, c. 1615 (?Place)
Schreckenfuchs, Erasmus OswaldGermany1511–1575St. 353, Bodl. Cat. 673, no. 3
Schreier, NorbertHungary1744–1811CatholicSzin; Zov
Schroeder, Johan. Friedr.Germanyfl. 1823Heb. Lex., Leipzig, 1823
Schroeder, Jo. JoachimGermany1680–1756St. 354, cf. Bodl. Cat. 2574; ADB
Schroeder, Nicolaus Wilh.Hungary, Holland1721–1798(?) CalvinistNNBW; ADB
Schubert, Heinr. Fr. W.Germanyfl. 1830Heb. Grammar, Schneeberg, 1830
Schudt, Johan. JacobGermany1664–1722LutheranSt. 355; ADB
Schuenemann, Chr. Heinr.Germanyfl. 1709Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1709
Schult, Johan.?fl. 1696St. 356, 308
Schulten, CarlSwedenfl. 1725St. 357, Bodl. Cat. 2574; Svensk
Schulten(s), AlbrechtHolland1686–1756NNBW; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Schultens, Heinrich AlbertHolland1749–1793NNBW; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Schultens, Johan. Jac.Holland1716–1778NNBW; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Schultz, Gottschalk, see Praetorius, Abdias
Schul(t)z, Johan. Chr. Friedr.Germany (?)fl. 1785Heb. Lex.
Schupart, Johan. Geo. (? Gottfried)Germany1677–1730LutheranADB; Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1709
Schurman(n), Anna MariaHolland1607–1678Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 69; ADB; NBU
Schwab, Johan. P.Germanyfl. 1745St. 358, Bodl. Cat. 2030, no.7
Schwarz, Johan. Conr.Germany1677–1747LutheranADB
Schwarz (Nigri), PeterGermany, Spainc. 1435–c. 1483DominicanSt. A. 41; NBU
Schwenter, DanielGermany1585–1636St. 359, Bodl. Cat. 2575; ADB
Scio, P.Spain?Bible translator
Scot(t), MichaelScotland, Italy(?)1175–1234DNB
Scots, DavidScotland(?)1770–1834DNB
Sebastianus, Aug. Nouzanus(enus)Germanyfl. 1530St. 360, Bodl. Cat. 2576
Sebutia, CacceliaItalyfl. 1683Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 69
Securius, PFlHungary1659–1721CalvinistSzin; Pap
Seffer, G.A.Germanyfl. 1845Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1845
Seidel(-ius), Casp.Germanyfl. 1638St. 361, Bodl. Cat. 2579
Seidenstuecker, Johan. Heinr. Phil.Germany1765–1817ADB; Heb. Grammar, Helmstedt 1791
Seidenstuecker, W.F.F.Germanyfl. 1836Heb. Grammar, Soest, 1836
Seiferheld, Jos. Laur.Germanyfl. 1763St. 362, Bodl. Cat. 2031, no. 11; S. Back, Jcd. Literaturbl., 1892, 2
Seineccerius, NicolausGermanyfl. 1584Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1584
Selden, JohnEngland1584–1654Puritan
SenepinFrance (?)fl. 1888Heb. Grammar in Fr., Freiburg, 1888
Serarius, NicolausGermany1555–1609JesuitUgolini, 24, 898; ADB
Setiers, L.P.Francefl. 1814Heb. Grammar, Paris, 1814
Seyfried, Christ.Swedenfl. 1664St. 363, Bodl. Cat. 1079, 2594
Seyfried, Henr.Germanyfl. 1663St. 364
Sgambati(us), ScipioItaly1595–1652St. 365
Sharp, GranvilleEngland1735–1813DNB
Sharp, ThomasEngland1693–1758DNB; NBU
Shaw, ThomasEngland1694–1751DNB; NBU
Sheringham, RobertEngland, Holland1602–1678St. 366, Bodl. Cat. 2594
Shilling, D.(?)Francefl. 1883Heb. Grammar, Lyons, 1883
Sigebert of GemblouxFlandersd. 1113St. A. 51; Sitzungsber. Wiener Akad, 1859, 29, 309; R.Loewe, Cambridge Hist. Bible, 2, ed. G. Lampe, 1969, 141–3
Sigonio, CarloItaly(?)1520–1584Enc. Biogr. Ital; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Sike (Sykes), HenryEnglandd. 1712Venn
Simon, RichardFrance1638–1712(expelled) OratorianNBU; Enc. Br. 11
Simonis, Johan.Germanyfl. 1741Onomasticon Vet. Test., H. Halle, 1741
Sjöbring, P.Swedenfl. 1836Heb. Grammar, Uppsala, 1836
Skinner, RalphEngland16th–17th c.St. 367; Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl. Misc. 4, 1942, 62f.
Slaughter, EdwardEngland,1655–1729JesuitDNB; B.N. Belg.
Sleidanus, Johan., see Schleidan, Johan.
Slevogt, Paul, see Schlevogt, Paul
Slonkovic, MartinusPolandfl. 1651Heb. Grammar, Cracow, 1651
Smal(l)ridge, GeorgeEngland1663–1719DNB
Smith, FrederickEnglandfl. 1870Tr. Ewald's Heb. Grammar, London, 1870
Smith, JohnU.S.A.fl. 1803Heb. Grammar, Boston, 1803
Smith, MilesEngland1568–1624DNB
Smith, ThomasEngland1638–1710St. 368, Bodl. Cat. 2646; DNB; NBU
Sőlősi, PálHungary166?–1688CalvinistDan
Sommer, Gottfr. Christ.Germanyfl. 1734St. 369; Scholem, Bibliography. Kabbalistica, no. 1081; Monats. Gesch. u. Wiss. Jud., 1895/6, 423
Somosi, P. JánosHungary1625–1681CalvinistSzin; Dan
Somossi, JánosHungary1783–1855CalvinistSzin; Zov; Dan; János Erdélyi, S.J., Sárospatak, 1864
Sonneschmid, Johan. JustusGermanyfl. 1720–1770LutheranSt. 370
Sonntag, Christoph.Germany1654–1717Evangelical LutheranADB
Spalding, Geo. Ludw.Germany1762–1811St. 371; ADB
Spalding, RobertEnglandd. 1626Venn
Spannheim, Friedr. (sen.)Holland, Switzerland1600–1649ADB; NNBW; NBU
Spannheim, Friedr. (jun.)Holland1632–1701NNBW; ADB
Speidelius, Johan. Chr.Germanyfl. 1731Heb. Grammar, Tübingen, 1731
Spelman, HenryEngland(?)1564–1641DNB; NBU; R. Loewe, Heb. Union Coll. Annual, 28, 1957, 221 n.74
Spencer, JohnEngland1630–1693DNB; NBU; Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl. 8, 100f.
Spencer, Philip JacobEngland (?), Germany17th c.JQR, 9 (18–96/97), 510
Sprecher, Johan. Died.Germanyfl. 1703St. 372, Bodl. Cat. 1079, no. 25
Springer, DanielGermany1656–1708St. 373, Bodl. Cat. 2651
Squier (Squire, Squyer), AdamEnglandd. before 1588Roth, Bodl. Library Record, 7, 1966, p. 243; Foster
Stadler, Johan. Ev.Germanyfl. 1831Heb. Lex., Munich, 1831
Staemmer, Christoph vanHolland (?)fl. 1661St. 374, Bodl. Cat. 1445, 2651
Stancaro(-rus), FranciscusItaly1501–1574ReformerADB; NBU; Heb. Grammar, Basle, 1547
Stapleton, ThomasEngland1535–1598Catholic
Starck (Starke), Heinr. Bened.Germany1672–1740LutheranHeb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1705; ADB
Starckius (Starke), Sebast. Gottfr.Germanyd. 1710St. 375; ADB
Steen, Cornelius van den, see Lapide, Cornelius B (van den Steen)
Steenbach, Joh.??St. 376
Steiner, Johan.?fl. 1600St. 376, n. 1
Steinersdorff, Johan. Christ.Germanyfl. 1747Heb. Grammar, Halle, 1747
Steinmetz, Joh. Andr. (? Adam)Poland (?)1689–1762St. 377, Bodl. Cat. 1391, no. 3; Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibl. 1, 112; ADB
Steinweg, Geo. Friedr.Germanyfl. 1753Heb. Grammar, Halle, 1753
Stengel, Lib.Germanyfl. 1841Heb. Grammar, Freiburg, 1841
Stenhagen, G.Swedenfl. 1705St. 269, Bodl. Cat. 682, no. 29
Steuco (Augustinus Steuchus Eugubinus), Agostino (Steuco de Gubbio)Italy1496–1549AugustinianNBU; Enc. Br.11;
Stier, Ewald Rud.Germany1800–1862Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1833; ADB; Enc. Br. 11
Stier, G.Germanyfl. 1857Heb. Lex. Leipzig, 1857
Stiles, EzraNew England (U.S.)1727–1795CongregationalistD. Am. B.; Enc. Br. 11
Stock, JosephIreland1740–1813DNB
Stolberg, BalthasarGermany?LutheranMeuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 52, 15
Stolle, Johan. Henr.Germany (?)fl. 1691St. 328
Strauch, Aegidius (Giles)Germany1632–1682LutheranADB
Stridzberg, Nic. H.Swedenfl. 1731St. 380
Struvius, Johan. JuliusGermanyfl. 1697St. 381
Stuart, MosesU.S.A.1780–1852Heb. Grammar, Andover, New Hants, 1821; D. Am B. Enc. Br. 11
Stubbs, WolfranEnglandd. 1719Venn
Stuckuis, Joannes GuilhelmusHolland (?), France, Switzerland1542–1607Protestant
Suetonio, AgostinoItaly?St. 383, Heb. Übers. xxvii, line 7
Summenhardt, KonradGermany(?)1466–1502St. A. 23; ADB
Sur(r)enhusius(-huis, -huysen), Wil.Holland1666–1729CalvinistSt. 382, Bodl. Cat. 2663; NNBW; NBU
Sussex, Augustus Fred. Duke ofEngland1773–1843DNB; NBU
Swan, G.Swedenfl. 1706St. 269, cf. 384, Bodl. Cat. 682, no. 29
Sykes, Arthur, AshleyEngland(?)1684–1756DNB
Sykes, Henry, see Sike, Henry
Sylvester, JohannesHungary16th c."Grammatica Hungarolatina"; Robert Dan, S.J., Magyar Könyvszemle 1969, 2
Sypkens, HendrikHolland19th c.NNBW 9, 1097
Szántó, IstvánHungary1541–1612CatholicSzin
Szatmári, Ötvös IstvánHungary1620–1665CalvinistSzin; Zov; Dan
Szatmár–Némethi, MihályHungary1638–1689CalvinistSzin; Zov
Szatmárnémeti, MihályHungary, Holland (?)1667–1709CalvinistSzin; Zov
Szatmárnémeti, SamuelHungary1658–1717CalvinistMarm; Szin; Pap
Szatmáry, Orban SamuelHungary1711–1757CalvinistMarm; Szin
Szatmáry, P. DanielHungary1769–1818CalvinistMarm; Szin
Szegedi, IstvánHungary1505–1572CalvinistKohn; Szin; Marm
Székely, IstvánHungary151?–156?CalvinistSzin; Pap; Károly Mohácsy, Károlyi Gáspár, Budapest, 1948
Szemiot, AlexanderAustria, Poland1800–1835CatholicB.L.K. Oest.
Szenczi, Molnár AlbertHungary1574–1634CalvinistVenet; Szin; Zov
Szentiványi, MártonHungary1653–1705CatholicMarm; Szin
Szigmondy, SamuelAustriafl. 1828Heb. Grammar, Vienna, 1828
Szilágyi, PéterHungary167?–1723CalvinistSzin; Zov; Dan
Tailor, Francis see Tayler, Francis
Talbot, JamesEngland1665–1708Venn
Tanfield, ElisabethEngland1579–1639Zeitschr. f. Heb. Bibliography. xx, 69
Tarnóczi, MártonHungary1620–1685LutheranMarm; Szin; Zov
Tarnow, Johan.Germany1586–1629LutheranADB
Tayler (Tailor, etc.), Francis Englandfl. 1630–1660St. 385, Bodl. Cat. 2670
Taylor, EdwardNew England (U.S.A.)d. 1729PuritanAmerican Nat. Biogr.; Norman S. Grabo, E.T.
Taylor, JacobPennsylvania (U.S.A.)18th c.Inf. From C. Roth;? = author of almanac for 1745, Philadelphia
Taylor, JeremyEngland1613–1667DNB; L. Roth, Journ. Sem. Stud. 6, 1961, 204
Taylor, JohnEngland1694–1761DissenterDNB
Teigh, RobertEnglandfl. 1611trs. Gen.-Kings, King James' Bible
Tena, Luis deSpaind. 1622Enc. Univ. Illustr. Eur. Amer., 60, 848
Terentius, Johan. GerhardiHollandb. 1639St. 385 n. 1, Bodl. Cat. 169, no. 1133
Theobald (Therebald)Francefl. 1250 (?)St. A. 53
Theunitz, Johan. AntoniiHolland1569–1637 (?)NNBW
Thiele, E.E.Germanyfl. 1795Heb. Grammar, Jena, 1795
Thiersch, H. Wilh. JosiasGermany1817–1885ADB; Heb. Grammar, Erlangen, 1842
T(h)irsch, Leopold (O.?)Austria1733–1788JesuitB.L.K. Oest. Heb. Grammar, Prague, 1784
Thomason, GeorgeEnglandd. 1666DNB; Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl. 8, 1918, 63f.
Thompson, RichardHolland, Englandd. 1612/3DNB
Thorndike, HerbertEngland1598–1672DNB
Thorne, WilliamEngland(?)1568–1630DNB; Roth, Bodl. Lib. Record, 7, 1966, 246 n.1
Thuri, GyörgyHungary157?–160?CalvinistMarm; Szin; R. Dan, Journ. Jew. Stud., 19, 1968, 71f.
Thysius, AntoniusFlanders, Holland1565–1640B.N. Belg; NNBW; ADB
Til, Sal. VanHolland1643–1713CalvinistNNBW; NBU
Tingstadius, Johan. AdamSweden1748–1827Svensk
Tissard(us), FrançoisFrancefl. 1508Heb. & Greek Grammar, Paris, 1508
Tofeus Dobos, MihályHungary1624–1684CalvinistSzin; Zov; Dan; Jószef Koncz, T.M., Budapest, 1893
Top, AlexanderEnglandfl. 1629Read Sephardic cursive letter from David Reubeni; trs. Psalms, 1629
Torriano, Car.England1727–1778Venn
Tostado (Tostatus), alfonso de MadrigalSpainc.1400–1455NBU
Townley, JamesEngland1774–1833MethodistDNB; Misc. Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl., 4, 1942, 75
Traegard, E.Germanyfl. 1755Heb. Grammar, Greifswald, 1755
Transisalanus, Johann., see Campen, Jan (Johannes) van
Trigland, Jac. (nepos)Holland1583–1654CalvinistSt. 386, Bodl. Cat. 2686; NNBW
Trilles, VincentiusSpainfl. 1606Heb. Grammar, Valencia, 1606
Trithemius (Johann Heidenberg of Tritheim), JohannesGermany1462–1516BenedictineADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Trivet(h) (Trevet), NicholasEngland(?)1258–1328DominicanDNB; B. Smalley, Study of Bible in Mid. Ages 2, 400; R. Leowe (ed. V.D. Lipman), 3 Cent. Anglo-Jew. Hist., 1961, 136, 141
Trost(-ius), MartinusGermany (? Syrian)1588–1636ADB; Heb. Grammar, Copenhagen, 1627
Tullberg, Hamp. Kr.Swedenfl. 1834Heb. Grammar, Lund. 1834
Tyard, Pontus deFrance1521–1605Catholic
Tychsen, Oluf GerardDenmark, Germany1734–1815St. 387, Bodl. Cat. 2687; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Tydeman, B.F.Holland1784–1829NNBW 2, 1461
Tympe, Johann Gottfr.Germany(?)1697–1768LutheranADB
Tyndale, WilliamEngland, Flandersc.1490–1536Zwinlian
Uchtmann, AlardFrancefl. 1650St. 388, Bodl. Cat. 2659
Udall (Uvedale), JohnEngland(?)1560–1592DNB
Ugolino(-ini), BlasioItaly(?)1700–1770Catholic (Jewish apostate?)
Uhlemann, Friedr. Gottl.Germany1792–1864Heb. Grammar, Berlin, 1827; ADB
Ulmann, Johan.Alsacefl. 1663St. 389, Bodl. Cat. 2691
Uranius, HenricusSwitzerlandfl. 1541Heb. Grammar, Basle, 1541; B. Prijs, Basl. Heb. Drucke, 1964, pp. 97, 126
Urban, Anna WeissbruckerGermany16th c.Zeitchr. f. Heb. Bibl. xx, 66; Heb. Bibl., 20, 66
Urbanus, Rhegius Henr.Germanyfl. 1535St. 390; L. Geiger, Zeitschr. f. Gesch. d. Juden in Deutschl. 3, 105
Uri (Ury), Johan.Hungary, England1726–1796St. 391, Bodl. Cat. 2695; DNB
Ursinus, Johan. Heinr.Germany1608–1667ADB; NBU; Ugolini, 21, 766
Ussermann, AemilianGermany1737–1798BenedictineADB; Heb. syntax, Salisbury, 1764
Ussher, JamesIreland1581–1656DNB; NBU
Uythage, Cn. Cor.Hollandfl. 1680St. 392, Bodl. Cat. 2696
Valckenier, Johan.Hollandb. 1617NNBW 10, 1071
Valera, Cipriano deSpain, Englandb. 1531Foster; Venn
Valensis, Theoph.Germanyfl. 1631Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1631
Valeton, J.P.P.Holland19th c.untraced
Vallensis, JoannesFrancefl. 1545Heb. Grammar, Paris, c. 1545
Valois, Louis de, see Louis de Valois
Valperga, Tommaso di CalusoItaly1737–1815Heb. Grammar, Turin, 1805; NBU
Valverdius, BartholomaeusSpain, Italyfl. 1581St. 393
Varenius, AugustGermany1620–1684LutheranSt. 394; ADB
Vásárhelyi, K. PéterHungary160?–1660LutheranSzin
Vasseur, Joshua leFrancefl. 1646Heb. Grammar, Sedan, 1646
Vatable(-blé, -blus, Ouatablé, Gastabled), FrançoisFrancec.1490–1547St. 395, Bodl. Cat. 2699; NBU
Vater, Johan. SeverinGermany1771–1826Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1798; ADB; NBU
Vedelius, NicolausGermany, Holland1592–1642NNBW
Vehe, Matth. (? Mich.)Germanyfl. 1581St. 396; ADB
Venema, HermanHolland1697–1787NNBW
Venetus, Franc Geo. (Zorzi), see Giorgio (Zorzi), Francesco
Venusi, Johann BernhardAustria1751–1823CisterianB.L.K. Oest.
Verbrugge, OthoHolland1670–1745NNBW 9, 1186
Verestói, GyörgyHungary1698–1764CalvinistMarm; Szin; Zov
Vermigli, Pietro Martire, see Martyr, Peter
Verschuir, Johannes HendrikHolland1735–1803NNBW
Verseghy, FerencHungary1757–1822CatholicMarm; Szin; S. Krauss, Egy. Phil. Közl., 1899, 214–32
Vesey, GergelyHungary18th c.CalvinistMarm; Szin
Veszelin, Pál KismariaiHungary, Hollandd. 1645Szin
Veszprémi, B. IstvánHungary1637–1713CalvinistSzin; Zov; Dan
Viccars, JohnEngland1604–1660DNB
Vicinus, Jos. de, see Voisin, Joseph de
Vieira, Eman.Holland (?)fl. 1728Heb. Grammar, Leiden, 1728
Vigenlre, Blaise deFrance1523–1596(nominal) Catholic
Vignal(-ius), PierreFrancefl. 1562–1612P. Colomils, Gallia Orientalis, p. 146
Villalpando, Juan BautistaSpain1552–1608JesuitNBU
Villanova, Arnaldo deSpain(?)1230–1313NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Vinding, Johan. PaulHollandfl. 1633St. 397, Bodl. Cat. 1837, note.
Viterbo, Aegidius (Egidio) daItaly, France1465–1532Augustinian (cardinal)
Vitringa, CampegiusHolland1659–1722CalvinistNNBW 10, 1122; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Viweg, Chr.Germanyfl. 1685Heb. Grammar, Jena, 1685
Vizaknai, U. MihályHungary1654–169?CalvinistSzin; Zov; Dan
Vloten, Willem vanHolland1780–1829NNBW 8, 1304
Voetius, GysbertusHolland1589–1676NNBW; NBU; Enc.Br. 11
Vogel, Geo. Johan. Ludw.Germany1742–1776Heb. Grammar, Halle, 1769; ADB
Vogelsangh, ReinerusHolland1610–1679NNBW 10, 1128
Voisin (Vicinus), Joseph deFrancec.1610–1685St. 398, Bodl. Cat. 2269
Volborth, Jo. KarlGermany1748–1796Heb. Grammar, Leipzig, 1788; ADB
Vonck, Cornelis Hugo (? Valerius)Holland1724–1768NNBW
Vorst(-ius), Will. Hendrik van derHollandd. 1652RemonstrantSt. 399, Bodl. Cat. 2709
Vorstheimer, Joh., see Forster, Johann
Vosen, Christ. HermannGermany1815–1871CatholicHeb. Grammar, Freiburg, 1854; ADB
Voss(-ius), DionysiusHolland1612–1633(?)St. 400, Bodl. Cat. 2710; NNBW; NBU
Vossius, Gerhard JanHolland, England1577–1649Reformed Ch.DNB; ADB; NBU
Vossius, IsaacHolland, Sweden, England1618–1689AnglicanDNB; NNBW; ADB; NBU
Vriemont, Emo LuciusHolland1699–1760NNBW; NBU
Wachner, Andr. Geo.Germanyfl. 1735Heb. Grammar, Göttingen, 1735
Wachter, Johan. Geo.Germany1663–1757Scholem, Bibl. Kabbalistica, no. 1164; ADB; NBU
Waeijen, Johan van derHolland1639–1701NNBW 10, 1148
Wagenseil, Helena Sybilla Möller, see Moeller, Helena Sybilla Wagenseil
Wagenseil, Johann ChristophGermany(?)1633–1705 (?)St. 401, Nachtrag, p. 122, Bodl. Cat. 189, Add. p. 1xxv; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Wagner, Christian??St. 402
Wakefield (Wakfeldus), RobertEnglandd. 1537St. 403, Bodl. Cat. 2713; DNB
Wakefield, ThomasEnglandd. 1575DNB
Wallin, Geo (jun.)Germanyfl. 1722St. 404
Walreven, Didericus AdrianusHolland1732–1804NNBW 9, 1276
Walther, Johan.?fl. 1710St. 405
Walther(-us), Christ.Germanyfl. 1705St. 406, Bodl. Cat. 1875 no.30
Walther, F.Germanyfl. 1884Heb. Formlehre, Potsdam, 1884
Walther(-us), MichaelGermany1638–1692Heb. Grammar, Nuremberg, 1643; ADB
Walton, BryanEngland1600–1661DNB
Warner, LeviniusGermany, Holland1619–1665St. 407, Bodl. Cat. 2714, Leiden Cat. ix; NNBW
Wartha, Johann PaulAustria1714–before 1800Heb. lexicon & grammar, Styria, 1756, Prague, 1743; B.L.K. Oest.
Waser(us), KasparSwitzerland1565–1625Heb. Grammar, Basle, 1600; ADB
Wasmuth, Matth.Germany1625–1688LutheranHeb. Grammar, Kiel, 1666; ADB; NBU
Weckerlin, Chr. Ferd.Germanyfl. 1797Heb. Grammar, Stuttgart, 1797
Weemes, John, see Wemyss, John
Wegner, (?) Gottfr.Germany1644–1709ADB
Weidmann (? Wiedemann), J.Germany?St. 295, 408
Weiganmei(e)r, GeorgGermany1555–1599St. 409, Bodl. Cat. 2715
Weinmann, Johan.Germany1599–1672ADB
Weissbrucker, Anna Urban, see Urban, Anna Weissbrucker
Weitenauer, IgnazAustria1709–1783JesuitB.L.K. Oest.
Wemyss (Weemes), JohnScotlandc.1579–1636PresbyterianDNB; J. Bowman, Jew. Quart. Rev., 39 (1949), 379f.
Wenrik, Johann Geo.Austria1787–1847CatholicB.L.K. Oest.
Wessel, Johan.Holland, Germany, Switzerland1419–1489St. A. 35; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
W(eszelin), Kismariai Paulus, see Veszelin, PFl Kismariai
Wet(t)stein, Johan. JakobSwitzerland, Holland1693–1754RemonstrantNNBW; ADB; NBU; Enc. Br. 11
Wetzel, Joh. Chr. Friedr.Germany1762–1810Heb. Grammar, Berlin, 1796; ADB
Weyers, Hendrik EngelinusHolland1805–1844NNBW 10, 1191
Weymar, DanielGermanyfl. 1677LutheranUgolini, 11, 646
Wheeler, H.M.Englandfl. 1850Heb. Grammar, London, 1850
Wheelocke, Abr.England1593–1653DNB
Whittaker, John WilliamEngland(?)1790–1854DNB
Wichmannshausen, Johan. Christoph.Germany1663–1727LutheranADB
Widmanstetter(-stadt, -stadius), Johann Albrecht or LucreciusAustria1506–1557CatholicSt. 410; ADB; NBU
Widmarius, AbdiasHolland1591–1668NNBW 7, 1319
Wiedemann, J., see Weidmann (? Wiedemann), J.
Wiesendanger, Jakob, see Ceporinus, Jakob
Wilkins, DavidEngland1685–1745 (?)St. 411, Nachtrag, p.122, Bodl. Cat. 2726; DNB
Willard, ?U.S.A.fl. 1817Heb. Grammar, Harvard, 1817
Willemer, JohannGermany?LutheranMeuschen, Nov. Test. ex Talmude Illustr., 58, 15
Willet, AndrewEngland1562–1621DNB
Willis, ArthurEnglandfl. 1834Heb. Grammar, London, 1834
Willmet, JoannesHolland1750–1835NNBW 10, 1222
Wilson, CharlesEnglandfl. 1782Heb. Grammar, London, 1782
Wilson, DanielEngland, India1778–1858DNB
Wilson, JohnScotland, India1804–1875Heb. Grammar in Marathi, Bombay, 1832; DNB
Win(c)kler, Johan. Friedr.Germany1679–1738St. 412, Bodl. Cat. 1081, no. 37; ADB
Winer, Johan. Geo. Bened.Germany1789–1858St. 413, Bodl. Cat. 2726; ADB; Enc. Br. 11
Winkler, ?Germany (?)18th c.St. 412; J.C. Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. ii, 1264, no. 69
Wisendangen, Jakob von, see Ceporinus, Jakob
Witter, Henr. Bernh.Germanyfl. 1703St. 414, Bodl. Cat. 2726
Wittig, Johan. SigmundGermanyfl. 1802Heb. Grammar, Wittenberg, 1802
Witzius, HermannHolland1636–1708NNBW 3, 1445
Woeldicke, MarcusDenmark1699–1750St. 415, Bodl. Cat. 1877, no. 43
Wolder(-us), DavidGermanyd. 1604Heb. Grammar, Hamburg, 591; ADB (?)
Wolf(f), Geo.Germanyfl. 1557St. 416
Wolf(f)(-ius), Johann ChristianGermany1683–1739St. 417, Bodl. Cat. 2730, Add., Introd. xxxiv; ADB; NBU
Wolf(-ph), Johan. Jac.Switzerland(?)1521–1571 (?)St. 419; ADB (?)
Wolf, Johann W.?d. 1751untraced
Wolfe, J. RobertEnglandfl. 1860Heb. Grammar, London, 1860
Wolfer(d)us, MichaelHolland1627–1664NNBW 10, 1234
Wolff, Johann Henr.?fl. 1726St. 418
Wollaston, WilliamEngland1659/60–1724DeistDNB; NBU; A. Altmann, Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl., 16, 1949, 184f.
Wolters, LudovicusGermanyfl. 1718Selecta e Sohar et Rabboth, Bremen, 1718
Worm, Christian??St. 420
Wotton, WilliamEngland1666–1726 (?)St. 421, Bodl. Cat. 2734; DNB; NBU
Wuelf(f)er, Johan.Germany1651–1724LutheranSt. 422, Bodl. Cat. 2734; ADB (s.v. Daniel W.)
Wuerttemberg, Antonia, Princess of, see Antonia, Princess of Wuerttemberg
Ximénez de Cisneros, FranciscoSpain1436–1517Franciscan
Yeates, ThomasEngland1768–1839DNB
Young, RobertScotland1822–1888DNB; Jew. Hist. Soc. Engl., Misc. 4, 1942, 79
Zabler, JóbHungary1628–1664LutheranSzin; Zov; Dan
Zamora, Andreas de LeónSpain?St. 64; J.C. Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. 2, 1167, 1180
Zanolini, AntonioItalyfl. 1747St. 423
Zasio, AndrésHungary1740–1816CalvinistSzin
Zeleny, Franc.Bohemiafl. 1756Heb. Grammar, Prague, 1756
Zeller, Andr. Christoph.Germanyfl. 1711St. 424, Bodl. Cat. 1878, 2760
Zeltner, Geo. Gust.Germany1672–1738St. 425, Bodl. Cat. 2761, Add; ADB; NBU
Zieriksee, Amandus van, see Amandus van Zieriksee
Zorzi, Francesco Georgio (Franciscus Venetus), see Giorgio, Francesco
Zsigmondi, SamuelHungary1788–1833LutheranSzin
Zwingli, Ulrich (Huldreich)Switzerland1484–1531ReformerNBU; ADB; Enc. Br. 11

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