Ginoulhiac, Jacques Marie Achille
GINOULHIAC, JACQUES MARIE ACHILLE
French bishop and theologian; b. Montpellier, Dec. 3, 1806; d. there, Nov. 17, 1875. In 1830, immediately after ordination, he was appointed professor of philosophy and natural sciences and in 1833 professor of theology at the seminary of Montpellier. In 1839 he became vicar-general of Aix. While bishop of Grenoble (1852–70) he conducted a careful investigation during the controversy concerning la salette before deciding in favor of the credibility of the apparitions there. In 1870 he was promoted to the archbishopric of Lyons, where in 1873 he laid the cornerstone for the basilica of Notre Dame de Fourvière. He was a good administrator in both sees and issued pastoral letters of high theological caliber. Although he was always very devoted to the Holy See, upheld the papal temporal power, and repulsed attacks on the syllabus of errors, he gained the reputation of being a supporter of liberalism and gallicanism. His intent, however, was to prevent misunderstanding between the Church and modern society. At vatican council i he delivered a remarkable address advocating freedom of theological investigation. Along with Félix dupanloup he was a leader among the French bishops in the minority group opposed to the definition of papal primacy and infallibility. He voted non placet (July 13, 1870) and absented himself from the public session (July 18) that promulgated the doctrines, but he subscribed to them on August 16. Ginoulhiac's reputation as a theologian was established with his Histoire du dogme catholique pendant les trois premiers siècles (2 v. 1852; 2d ed. in three v. 1865), in which he asserted that the doctrine of the Trinity did not result from rationalistic speculation but from the theological development of teachings contained in revelation. His other writings include Sermon sur la montagne (1873) and Les origines du christianisme (1878).
Bibliography: e. mangenot, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique 6.2:1371–73. c. butler, The Vatican Council, 2 v. (New York 1930).