FREEMAN, JOSEPH (1897–1965), U.S. author, critic, and journalist. Freeman was taken to the U.S. from the Ukraine as a boy of seven. After his graduation in 1919, he joined the editorial staff of Harper's Illustrated History of the World War, but in the following year moved to Paris, where he worked for the Chicago Tribune, subsequently representing both the Tribune and the New York Daily News in London. In 1922 he returned to New York, where he used his journalistic talents in support of socialism, working first for The Liberator and later also for the Partisan Review. In 1926 he helped to found the monthly New Masses. He first represented the periodical in Moscow, and at various times during the 1930s was its editor. Freeman and Michael *Gold were the two outstanding American writers of the Left during the years preceding World War ii. Free-man's works include Dollar Diplomacy: A Study in American Imperialism (1925), a radical assessment of U.S. foreign policy written in collaboration with S. Nearing; Voices of October: Art and Literature in Soviet Russia (1930), with J. Kunitz and L. Lozowick; and The Soviet Worker (1932). His autobiography, An American Testament: A Narrative of Rebels and Romantics (1936), is one of the most valuable source books on the radicalliterary politics of his time. Under the stress of the Nazi-Soviet pact of 1939 Freeman finally broke with the Communists. He later published two novels, Never Call Retreat (1943), which dealt with the frustrations of a political refugee, and The Long Pursuit (1947), set in postwar occupied Germany.
D. Aaron, Writers on the Left (1961), 68–90, 119–48, 365–75; S.J. Kunitz, Twentieth Century Authors, first supplement (1955), s.v.; New York Times (Aug. 11, 1965), 35. add. bibliography: J. Bloom, Left Letters: The Culture Wars of Mike Gold and Joseph Freeman (1992).
[Milton Henry Hindus]
"Freeman, Joseph." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/freeman-joseph
"Freeman, Joseph." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved February 20, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/freeman-joseph
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.