Freeman, Paul (Douglas)
Freeman, Paul (Douglas)
Freeman, Paul (Douglas), African-American conductor; b. Richmond, Va., Jan. 2, 1936. He studied piano, clarinet, and cello in his youth, then continued his musical training at the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, N.Y. (B.M., 1956; M.M., 1957; Ph.D., 1963); also took courses at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (1957–59). Returning to the U.S., he took conducting lessons with Richard Lert and Pierre Monteux. He subsequently held the post of conductor with the Opera Theater of Rochester (1961–66), the San Francisco Cons. Orch. (1966–67), and the San Francisco Little Sym. Orch. (1967–68); then was assoc. conductor of the Dallas Sym. Orch. (1968–70) and resident conductor of the Detroit Sym. Orch. (1970–79); also served as principal guest conductor of the Helsinki Phil. (1974–76). From 1979 to 1988 he was music director of the Victoria (B.C.) Sym. Orch. In 1987 he became music director of the Chicago Sinfonietta.
—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire
"Freeman, Paul (Douglas)." Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 17, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/freeman-paul-douglas
"Freeman, Paul (Douglas)." Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. . Retrieved January 17, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/freeman-paul-douglas
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.