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CHWILA ("Moment") , Jewish Polish-language daily published in Lvov, eastern Galicia, from 1919 to 1939. It was founded during the difficult period of the Polish revival, when anti-Jewish feelings were demonstrated in a pogrom in Lvov in November 1918, while the Poles and Ukrainians were struggling for control of this important city, most Jews having declared themselves neutral. The newspaper was initiated by Zionist leaders in eastern Galicia who wished to have a Polish-language organ to counter the accusations made against the Jews, react to the persecutions, and raise Jewish morale; the subsequent difficult position of the Jews and increased Polonization necessitated its continued publication. All sectors of the Jewish population, including non-Zionists, had confidence in the paper, not only for its political and general content and discussion of national and Zionist problems but also for its literary and art sections. The first editor of Chwila was Gerschon *Zipper, and subsequent editors were Henryk *Rosmarin. David Maltz, Julius Wurzel, Leon Weinstock, and Henryk Hescheles (pseudonym Trejwart). Among its important contributors were Leon *Reich, Ze'ev Berkelhammer, Moses *Schorr, Meir *Balaban, A. Insler, Adolf Rothfeld, and David Schreiber.

add. bibliography:

Y. Gothelf (ed.). Ittonut Yehudit she-Hayeta (1973), 281–90; B. Letocha, "Chwila, Ha-Yoman ha-Polani ha-Nafoẓ be-Yoter," in: Kesher, 20 (1996), 128–6.

[Moshe Landau]

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