The more reflective Taoism of Lao-tzu or of Chuang-tzu regarded spiritual immortality as more important—and indeed as alone attainable.
Many symbols of immortality appear in Chinese art under Taoist influence. Particularly frequent are peaches (cultivated by Hsi Wang mu), the herb or mushroom of immortality (ling-chih), a crane (often holding the ling-chih), pine trees, a gnarled stick of wood.
"Chʾang-sheng Pu-ssu." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 19, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chang-sheng-pu-ssu
"Chʾang-sheng Pu-ssu." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved March 19, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/chang-sheng-pu-ssu
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.