Benedict IV, Pope
BENEDICT IV, POPE
Pontificate: Jan.–April 900 to July 903. A Roman, ordained by Pope formosus, Benedict summoned a Lateran synod (900), which validated the consecrations and ordinations of Formosus. His generosity toward those in distress was praised by Frodoard the historian. This is evident in his support of Stephen, unjustly deprived of his see at Sorrento, Italy, and of an eastern prelate, Malacenus, who had been driven into exile by the Saracens. He formally excommunicated the murderer of Fulk, the Archbishop of Reims, and ordered the French bishops to promulgate this decree throughout the country. In February 901 he crowned Louis III, the Blind, King of Provence and Emperor of Italy. But Louis was defeated by berengar i in 902 and forced to take an oath to leave Italy forever. At Benedict's death, the papacy became the object of party strife.
Bibliography: p. jaffÉ, Regesta pontificum romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum 1198 (Graz 1956) 1:306. Liber pontificalis, ed. l. duchesne (Paris 1886–1958) 2:233. h. k. mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages from 590 to 1304 (London 1902–32) 4:103–110. f. baix, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, ed. a. baudrillart et al. (Paris 1912) 8:27–31. w. kÖlmel, Rom und der Kirchenstaat im 10. Und 11. Jahrhundert (Berlin 1935). j. haller, Das Papsttum (Stuttgart 1950–53) 2:193, 546. r. benericetti, La cronologia dei Papi dei secoli IX–XI secondo le carte di Ravenna, (1999) 31–32. j. n. d. kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes (New York 1986) 117–118.
"Benedict IV, Pope." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/benedict-iv-pope
"Benedict IV, Pope." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved December 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/benedict-iv-pope
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.