Benedict IX, Pope

views updated


Pontificate: August or September 1032 to September 1044; b. Theophylactus; d. Grottaferrata, 1055?. He was a son of Alberic III, leader of the tusculani, and he simoniacally succeeded his uncles, benedict viii and john xix. Though young (perhaps 30), Theophylactus was certainly not a boy of 12 when he became pope. His personal conduct was often not edifying. The first 12 years of Benedict's pontificate were peaceful, and he was free to meet conrad ii at cremona and Spello and to journey to Marseilles. There was no controversy with the emperor; and when Conrad uncanonically deposed Abp. Heribert of Milan, Benedict compliantly excommunicated him. In 1044 a revolt drove Benedict from Rome and installed Bishop John of Sabina as antipope Sylvester III. In March 1045 Benedict in turn drove out Sylvester. Then on May 1 Benedict sold his papal office to his baptismal sponsor, the reforming archpriest John Gratian, Pope gregory vi. In the fall of 1045 the reform-minded Emperor henry iii entered the fray. Reform synods held at Pavia, Sutri, and Rome deposed Gregory, and Suidger of Bamberg was acclaimed Pope clement ii. After Clement's untimely death in 1047, Benedict again controlled Rome, Nov. 8, 1047 to July 16, 1048, until Boniface of Tuscany, acting on Henry's orders, drove him out for good and installed the new pope, damasus ii. Benedict died probably at the end of 1055.

Bibliography: p. jaffÉ, Regesta pontificum romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum 1198 (Graz 1956) 1:519523. p. f. kehr, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum. Italia Pontificia (Berlin 1911) 6.2. Liber pontificalis, ed. l. duchesne (Paris 18861958) 2:270272. g. b. borino, "L'elezionee la deposizione di Gregorio VI," Archivio della Societa Romana di Storia Patria 39 (1916) 142252, 295410; "Invitus ultra montes cure domno Papa Gregorio abii," Studi gregoriani, 1 (1947) 346. r. l. poole, "Benedict IX and Gregory VI," Proceedings of the British Academy 8 (191718) 199235. h. k. mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages from 590 to 1304 (London 190232) 6. f. baix and l. jadin, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, ed. a. baudrillart et al. (Paris 1912) 8:93105. a. fliche and v. martin, eds., Histoire de l'église depuis les origines jusqu'à nos jours (Paris 1935) 7. t. schieffer, "Heinrich II und Konrad II," Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 8(1951) 384437. f. x. seppelt, Geschichte der Päpste von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des 20. Jh. (Munich 195459) 23. t. basil, "La conversione di Bendetto IX dei conti di Tuscolo," Castelli Romani 21 (1976) 14243. r. benericetti, "La conversione di Benedetto IX dei conti di Tuscolo," Castelli Romani 21 (1976) 14243. k. j. benz, "Kaiser Konrad II. (10241039) als kirchlicher Herrscher. Der Strassburger Adventisstreit und die Synode von 1038 im Kloster Limburg an der Haardt," Archiv für Liturgiewissenschaft 2021 (197879), 5680. l. l. ghiradini, Il papa fanciullo Benedetto IX (10321948). La verità storica su un fatto straordinario (Parma 1980). i. heidrich, "Die Absetzung Herzog Adalberos von Kärnten durch Kaiser Konrad II. 1035," Historisches Jahrbuch 91(1971), 709. j. n. d. kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes (New York 1986) 142144.

[v. gellhaus]