Gobind Si̇gh, Gurū

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Gobind Siṅgh, Gurū (1666–1708 CE). Tenth Sikh Gurū. Gobind Rāi was born on 26 Dec. 1666, in Paṭnā, to Mātā Gūjarī, while her husband, Tegh Bahādur, was travelling further east. Later, the family returned to Anaṇḍpur Sāhib, where, in Nov. 1675, Gobind Rāi received the severed head of his martyred father. As his father's chosen successor, he was installed as Gurū. His poetry comprises the Dasam Granth. Adoration of God's holiness and majesty is expressed in new epithets (e.g. akāl (timeless), sarvloh (all-iron), ‘Sword’, and ‘Punisher of Evil’, as well as ‘Gracious’ and ‘Benign’). Pious Sikhs daily recite his jāp, savayye, and chaupaī in Nitnem. On Baisākhī 1699 (according to tradition) he inaugurated the khālsā, and initiated with amrit the pañj pyāre to be the nucleus of a pure, casteless community, characterized by the five Ks and a code of conduct (rahat). He in turn received initiation (Khaṇḍe-dī-pāhul) from them, assuming the name Siṅgh. Thousands more accepted this initiation.

On Auraṅgzeb's death in 1707 CE Gobind Siṅgh supported the succession of Bahādur Shāh. In an attempt to punish Wazīr Khān and other persecutors of the Sikhs. Gobind Siṅgh was fatally wounded by two Pathān assassins. He bade his Sikhs regard the Ādi Granth as Gurū (so ending the line of human gurus), and died 7 Oct. 1708.