Samsun (sämsōōn´), city (1990 pop. 301,412), capital of Samsun prov., N Turkey, on the Black Sea. The most important Turkish port on the Black Sea, it is also a major tobacco-processing center and an agricultural market. Textiles, tobacco, and fertilizer are exported. The ancient Amisus, it was founded (6th cent. BC) by Greek colonists, became an important city of the kingdom of Pontus, and was much favored under the Roman Empire. In the Middle Ages it was held by the Byzantines, the Seljuk Turks, the Genoese, and the empire of Trebizond before falling (14th cent.) to the Ottoman Turks. On May 19, 1919, Kemal Atatürk landed at Samsun to organize a nationalist movement in Turkey. A statue commemorates this event.
"Samsun." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/samsun
"Samsun." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/samsun
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.