Sadr, Moktada al-
Moktada al- Sadr (mŏŏkh´tädä ä-sä´dər), 1973?–, Iraqi Shiite cleric. The son of Grand Ayatollah Mohammed Sadeq al-Sadr, who was assassinated in 1999 (presumably by Saddam Hussein's secret police), he emerged after the American invasion of Iraq as a savvy, militantly Islamist and anti-American leader, with significant support among poorer and younger Iraqi Shiites, particularly in the Sadr City section of Baghdad, a Shiite enclave named for his father. Accused of involvement in the assassination (2003) of Ayatollah Abdul Majid al-Khoei, a moderate who had U.S. support, Sadr led his militia, the Mahdi Army, in two abortive uprisings against the U.S. occupation in 2004.
After the 2004 uprisings, he supported involvement in the political process, despite denouncing the constitution, and was a significant force in the United Iraqi Alliance, a coalition of Shiite religious parties, but in Sept., 2007, his party withdrew from the government. In late 2007 he ordered his militia, which had at times fought with U.S. forces and had been blamed for attacks on the police, on Sunnis, and on other Shiites, to observe a cease-fire. His forces were significantly weakened in May, 2008, when U.S. and Iraqi government forces asserted control over Sadr City.
Sadr extended the cease-fire indefinitely in late 2008 and also ordered most members of the milita to disarm. Politically, however, his party remained significant. In the 2010 parliamentary elections it was the principal component of the National Iraqi Alliance, a Shiite coalition led by Ibrahim al-Jaafari that included most of the main parties in the former United Iraqi Alliance, and the party joined the government formed in late 2010. Sadr is believed to have spent most of 2007–2010 at Qom, Iran, having fled Iraq in 2006 or 2007; he publicly returned to Iraq in early 2011, but has since spent time in Iran. In 2014, amid the successes in N Iraq of the Sunni militia the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, he revived the Mahdi Army as an independent Shiite force.
See biography by P. Cockburn (2008).
"Sadr, Moktada al-." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 22, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/sadr-moktada-al
"Sadr, Moktada al-." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 22, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/sadr-moktada-al
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.