Qostanay, Kostanai, or Kustanay (all: kŏŏs´tənī´), city (1993 est. pop. 228,000), N Kazakhstan, on the Tobol River. It is an agricultural center and producer of chemical fibers. Rich iron deposits are nearby at Rudnyi. The city expanded dramatically in the 1960s as a result of the Virgin Lands campaign.
"Qostanay." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/qostanay
"Qostanay." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/qostanay