Qaraghandy or Karaganda (both: kär´əgän´də), city (1993 est. pop. 596,000), in central Kazakhstan, on the Trans-Kazakhstan RR. It consists of about 50 coal-mining settlements scattered around the central part of the city, and it is a leading industrial and cultural center of Kazakhstan. Its industries include iron and steel plants, flour mills, food and beverage plants, and factories that produce mining equipment, building materials, machinery, and footwear. Qaraghandy was founded in 1857 as a copper-mining settlement. The Qaraghandy coal basin, developed in the late 1920s, is a major producer of bituminous coal; near the city is apower station. The Irtysh-Qaraghandy Canal supplies the city with water.
"Qaraghandy." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/qaraghandy
"Qaraghandy." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/qaraghandy
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.