Lüshun (lōō´shŏŏn´), formerly Port Arthur, Jap. Ryojun, former city, SW Liaoning prov., China, at the tip of the Liaodong peninsula. It was formerly combined with Dailian (Dairen) into the joint municipality of Lüda; it now is an adminstrative unit of Dalian. Lüshun is an important naval base dominating the entrance to the Bohai; it is also a southern terminus of the South Liaoning RR. The city was the administrative center of the Liaodong leasehold from 1898 to 1945 (see Liaoning). As a Russian base (1898–1905), it was the site on Feb. 8, 1904, of the surprise Japanese naval attack that precipitated the Russo-Japanese War. The city passed to Japan by the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905). In 1945 it became the headquarters of the Port Arthur Naval Base District under joint Sino-Soviet administration. China regained exclusive control in 1955.
"Lüshun." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 15, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lushun
"Lüshun." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lushun
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.