Skip to main content

Fahd bin Abdul Aziz

Fahd bin Abdul Aziz (fäd Ĭb´ən ăbdŏŏl´ ăzēz´), 1923–2005, king of Saudi Arabia (1982–2005). A son of Ibn Saud, the founder of Saudi Arabia, Fahd served as education minister (1953–62) and interior minister (1962–75) and was named (1975) crown prince by his half-brother King Khalid. He was a powerful shaper of Saudi foreign and domestic policy under Khalid, on whose death (1982) he succeeded to the throne. Fahd's decision to permit U.S. and other foreign forces to based in Saudi Arabia after the invasion of Kuwait was controversial and offended many Muslims. He encouraged limited modernization of Saudi Arabia, but the new constitution (1992) that established an appointed consultative national council left unchanged the royal family's control of the government. As a result of Fahd's prolonged illness following a 1995 stroke, de facto authority rested with Crown Prince Abdullah during the final years of his reign.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Fahd bin Abdul Aziz." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 21 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Fahd bin Abdul Aziz." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (April 21, 2019).

"Fahd bin Abdul Aziz." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 21, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.