Black September 1970
BLACK SEPTEMBER 1970
Name given by the Palestinians to the events of September 1970 in Jordan, when the fighters of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) were attacked by the Jordanian army. In ten days of bloody fighting, more than 4,000 people died. Black September was the result of a series of events that began with the defeat of the Arab armies in the Arab-Israel War of 1967, which discredited all Arab governments and particularly disillusioned the Palestinians. The occupation by Israel of the West Bank, which had previously been controlled by Jordan, caused more than 250,000 Palestinians (many already displaced by the 1948-1949 War) to flee to Jordan, and it deprived both them and Jordan of the benefits of the West Bank economy, causing a recession. There was then extensive growth in Jordan of Palestinian organizations and institutions, both social and military, amounting almost to a separate government. The Jordanian government at this point was too weak to prevent this, and there was already hostility to the Jordanian royal house by certain Palestinian movements, such as the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), many of whose members were of Jordanian origin.
In 1970, during the war of attrition, Egypt's unsuccessful campaign to drive Israel back from the Suez Canal, U.S. secretary of state William Rogers, who had proposed the rejected Rogers Plan in 1969, offered a modified proposal calling for a ninety-day truce while a cease-fire between Israel and the Arab states was negotiated by United Nations mediator Gunnar Jarring. This was accepted by Egypt, Jordan, and Israel—and unanimously opposed by the PLO. The cease-fire took effect on 7 August. On 16 September 1970, King Hussein formed a military government, and the following day, the Jordanian army undertook its campaign of violent repression of the Palestinians, which lasted until a truce was negotiated by President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt. Fighting broke out again in July 1971; after the Jordanians suppressed it, they expelled the Palestinian organizations from the country en masse. These organizations regrouped in Lebanon.
"Black September 1970." Dictionary of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 15, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/politics/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/black-september-1970
"Black September 1970." Dictionary of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. . Retrieved March 15, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/politics/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/black-september-1970
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.