Black September 13 Brigades
BLACK SEPTEMBER 13 BRIGADES
A Palestinian movement, the Black September 13 Brigades was created on 27 October 1993 by Lieutenant Colonel Munir Hasan al-Maqdah, al-Fatah military commander at the Ain al-Hilwa (Lebanon) camp, who opposed the Israeli-Palestinian accord of the preceding 13 September. The principal cause of his opposition was the exclusion, from this accord, of the question of the refugees from 1948. While the Alliance of Palestine Forces (APF) made efforts to rally al-Maqdah to its cause, the latter, on his side, tried vainly to obtain the backing of important al-Fatah leaders, such as the brothers Hani and Khalid al-Hasan. The principal members of this movement, in addition to Maqdah, were Abu Khalid al-Arkoub, Jamal Qudsi, and Ali Hussein Fahoud. Black September 13, with the Lebanese Hizbullah, carried out attacks against Israeli forces in south Lebanon in 1995. Since then, Maqdah has been involved in supporting the Hizbullah and the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. Though effectively out of PLO or al-Fatah control since 1993, Maqdah was not formally relieved of his position as al-Fatah commander at Ain al-Hilwa until June 2003.