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graft

graft1 / graft/ • n. 1. Horticulture a shoot or scion inserted into a slit of stock, from which it receives sap. ∎  an instance of inserting a shoot or scion in this way. 2. Med. a piece of living tissue that is transplanted surgically. ∎  a surgical operation in which tissue is transplanted. • v. [tr.] 1. Horticulture insert (a scion) as a graft: it was common to graft different varieties onto a single tree trunk. ∎  insert a graft on (a stock). 2. Med. transplant (living tissue) as a graft: they can graft a new hand onto the arm. ∎ fig. insert or fix (something) permanently to something else, typically in a way considered inappropriate: western-style government could not easily be grafted onto a profoundly different country. graft2 • n. practices, esp. bribery, used to secure illicit gains in politics or business; corruption: sweeping measures to curb official graft. ∎  such gains: government officials grow fat off bribes and graft. • v. [intr.] make money by shady or dishonest means. DERIVATIVES: graft·er n. graft3 Brit., inf. • n. hard work: turning those dreams into reality was sheer hard graft. • v. [intr.] work hard: I need people prepared to go out and graft. DERIVATIVES: graft·er n.

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grafting

grafting, horticultural practice of uniting parts of two plants so that they grow as one. The scion, or cion, the part grafted onto the stock or rooted part, may be a single bud, as in budding, or a cutting that has several buds. The stock may be a whole mature plant, such as an apple tree, or it may be a root (usually of a seedling). The most important reason for grafting is to propagate hybrid plants that do not bear seeds, or plants that do not grow true from seed. It is also used in dwarfing and in tree surgery, to increase the productivity of fruit trees by adding to the number of buds, to adapt a plant to an unfamiliar soil or climate by using the roots of another plant which thrives in that environment, and to combat diseases and pests (e.g., the phylloxera) by using a resistant stock. Grafting does not produce new varieties, since both stock and scion retain their characteristics. Grafting, which was employed in Roman times, is used extensively by nurserymen and other horticulturists. In general, only closely related plants can be grafted successfully. As a rule, the process is begun when the scion is dormant and the stock is just resuming growth. There are many methods of grafting, all of which depend on the closest possible uniting of the cambium layers of both scion and stock.

See R. J. Garner, The Grafter's Handbook (3d ed. 1968).

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graft

graft An isolated portion of living tissue that is joined to another tissue, either in the same or a different organism, the consequent growth resulting in fusion of the tissues. (The word is also used for the process of joining the tissues.)

Grafting of plant tissues is a horticultural practice used to propagate plants, especially certain bushes and fruit trees, artificially. A shoot or bud of the desired variety (the scion) is grafted onto a rootstock of either a common or a wild related species (the stock). The scion retains its desirable characteristics (e.g. flower form or fruit yield) and supplies the stock with food made by photosynthesis. The stock supplies the scion with water and mineral salts and affects only the size and vigour of the scion.

Animal and human grafts are used to replace faulty or damaged parts of the body. An autograft is taken from one part of the body and transferred to another part of the same individual, e.g. a skin graft used for severe burns. An allograft (homograft) is taken from one individual (the donor) and implanted in another of the same species (the recipient), the process being known as transplantation, e.g. a heart or kidney transplant. In such cases the graft may be regarded by the body as foreign (a state of incompatibility): an immune response follows and the graft is rejected (see also histocompatibility).

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graft

graft
1. (noun) A small piece of tissue implanted into an intact organism.

2. (verb) To transfer a part of an organism from its normal position to another position on the same organism (autograft), or to a different organism of the same species (homograft), or an organism of a different species (heterograft). The source of the part that is grafted is called the donor (in animals) or the scion (in plants) and the organism to which it is united is called the host or recipient (in animals) or the stock (in plants). A graft hybrid is an organism made up of two genetically distinct tissues, owing to the fusion of host or scion and donor or stock after grafting. In cultivation a stem from one plant (the scion) is fused with a rooted portion of another (the stock) to form a single plant. Most fruit trees are produced by grafting, the type of fruit being determined by the scion, but the size of the tree by the stock.

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graft

graft
1. (noun) A small piece of tissue implanted into an intact organism.

2. (verb) To transfer a part of an organism from its normal position to another position on the same organism (autograft), or to a different organism of the same species (homograft), or an organism of a different species (heterograft). The source of the part that is grafted is called the scion and the organism to which it is united is called the stock. A graft hybrid is an organism made up of two genetically distinct tissues resulting from the fusion of scion and stock after grafting. In cultivation, a stem from the plant (the scion) is fused with a rooted portion of another (the stock) to form a single plant. Most fruit trees are produced by grafting, the type of fruit being determined by the scion, but the size of the tree by the stock.

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Graft

GRAFT

A colloquial term referring to the unlawful acquisition of public money through questionable and improper transactions with public officials.

Graft is the personal gain or advantage earned by an individual at the expense of others as a result of the exploitation of the singular status of, or an influential relationship with, another who has a position of public trust or confidence. The advantage or gain is accrued without any exchange of legitimate compensatory services.

Behavior that leads to graft includes bribery and dishonest dealings in the performance of public or official acts. Graft usually implies the existence of theft, corruption, fraud, and the lack of integrity that is expected in any transaction involving a public official.

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graft

graft
1. (noun) A small piece of tissue that is implanted into an intact organism.

2. (verb) To transfer a part of an organism from its normal position to another position on the same organism (autograft), or to a different organism of the same species (homograft), or an organism of a different species (heterograft). The source of the part that is grafted is called the donor (in animals) and the organism to which it is united is called the host or recipient. A graft hybrid is an organism made up of two genetically distinct tissues due to fusion of host and donor after grafting.

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graft

graft (grahft)
1. n. any organ, tissue, or object used for transplantation to replace a faulty part of the body. bone g. bone or a bonelike synthetic substance used to fill a defect in a bone or to augment bone formation. corneal g. see keratoplasty. See also coronary artery bypass graft, skin (graft), transplantation.

2. vb. to transplant an organ or tissue.

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graft

graft1 shoot inserted in another stock. XV. alt. of †graff (XIV) — OF. grafe, grefe, (also mod.) greffe — L. graphium — Gr. graphíon, grapheîon stylus, f. gráphein write; the transf. of meaning was suggested by the similarity of shape.
Hence graft vb. XV. alt. of †graff (XIV).

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grafting

grafting In horticulture, method of plant propagation. A twig of one variety (the scion) is established on the roots of a related variety (the stock). Most fruit trees are propagated by a similar process called budding, in which the scion is a single bud.

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graft

graft2 (orig. U.S.) means of making illicit profit; dishonest gains; (political) bribery. XIX. of unkn. orig.

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graft

graft, in surgery: see transplantation, medical.

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Graft

Graft

of tree surgeonsLipton, 1970.

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graft

graft •Taft •abaft, aft, craft, daft, draft, draught, engraft, graft, haft, kraft, raft, shaft, understaffed, unstaffed, waft •backdraft • handcraft • aircraft •stagecraft • spacecraft • statecraft •needlecraft • priestcraft • witchcraft •kingcraft • handicraft • woodcraft •Wollstonecraft • bushcraft •watercraft • hovercraft • crankshaft •camshaft • layshaft • driveshaft •turboshaft • countershaft •bereft, cleft, deft, eft, heft, klepht, left, reft, theft, weft •adrift, drift, gift, grift, lift, rift, shift, shrift, sift, squiffed, swift, thrift, uplift •airlift, chairlift, stairlift •facelift • skilift • shoplift • Festschrift •spendthrift • spindrift • snowdrift •makeshift • downshift • upshift •aloft, croft, loft, oft, soft, toft •hayloft • Ashcroft • Cockcroft •undercroft • Lowestoft •tuft, unstuffed •Delft

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Graft

GRAFT

Graft is the acquisition of money, position, or favor through dishonest means by a person who takes advantage of his official position. Graft is a sin against legal justice, according to which an official is bound to promote the common good of the community. It is also against distributive justice, by which rulers are bound to act toward individual persons and classes in accord with their merits, needs, and capacities. Graft is also a violation of commutative justice, by which a person is bound to the faithful discharge of the obligations he assumes in taking employment.

Elected public office holders are the usual offenders in this form of dishonesty, though the injustice may be committed by those who are appointed to public office rather than elected.

In the United States a spoils system is sometimes used, according to which political offices are filled by the members of the party that is in power. It is not wrong to make appointments on a party basis, but it is wrong to appoint persons who are not qualified for office. It is sinful for a politician to demand graft of another in exchange for appointment to a lesser public office. The sin of selling an appointment is worse when the appointee is in no way worthy.

If a public official, upon compensation, favors the evasion of a law, he is bound to make restitution to the state; he is also bound to make restitution to the wronged private citizen when money is involved. If a minor official is obliged by his superior to rubber stamp an evasion of the law he should offer resistance in whatever way possible; however, he is not bound to restitution as the superior official would be.

A public servant may sin by accepting graft for an appointment or by obtaining money, favor, or position through the awarding of devious contracts for services private companies perform for the state or country. He may sin by giving secret information, e.g., to real estate companies in return for compensation or a share in their profit.

The first duty of a public official who has sold immunity is to restore the graft. If the violation of the right cannot be repaired by a recall of the immunity and by bringing of the offender to trial or punishment, the money for which the right was exchanged should be given to the public treasury as restitution. If the public official abuses his function and forces someone to give or promise graft, the prime offender acquires a greater guilt. In our modern penal code such action is called extortion.

Normally, the acceptance of gifts by judges from attorneys who practice law before them and by public officials from companies who do business with the government is not morally offensive, unless it is specifically proscribed by civil legislation.

The public official, if he is Catholic, also commits an additional sin of scandal by taking graft. Today it seems almost impossible that he could be in good faith.

See Also: bribery.

Bibliography: j. aertnys and c. a. damen, Theologia moralis, 2 v. (16th ed. Turin 1950). b. hÄring, The Law of Christ, tr. e. g. kaiser, 3 v. (Westminster, Md. 1961). f. j. connell, Morals in Politics and Professions (Westminster, Md. 1946).

[t. cranny]

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Graft

Graft

Compatibility and incompatibility

Advantages of grafting

History and important examples of grafting

Disease resistance

Hardiness of citrus trees

Hardiness in flowering shrubs

Resources

A graft is a horticultural term for a bud or shoot of one variety or species of plant that is positioned on the stem of another compatible plant to produce integrated growth. The recipient plant is called the stock or rootstock, and the grafted part is referred to as the scion. A simple method for stem grafting involves both stems being cut with a sharp blade at the same acute angle, to maximize the contact area of contact. Then the stems are joined, and the union is bandaged with waterproof tape (or tape plus wax) until the wound has healed. Variations on this method involve complementary notches and the tongue being cut, according to how sturdy the scion is. Budding is the term applied when a bud with supporting tissue is grafted into a slit or notch cut into the stem of the stock.

Compatibility and incompatibility

The process of wound healing is absolutely necessary for successful grafting. Healing involves the cooperative production of new cells, some of which form cambium. From the cambium, new vascular (transport) tissues develop, permitting the transfer of water, nutrients, and hormones (growth regulators) to and from the scion. This interaction at the cellular level requires that the scion not be rejected by the stock. Hence, grafting is most likely to succeed with plants that are very closely related: either varieties of the same species or members ofthe same genus. However, not all members of the same genus are compatible. Sometimes the union can only be successful if one member is always the rootstock. For example, within the genus Prunus, peach scions cannot be grafted onto plum root-stocks, but plums can be grafted onto peach. Surprisingly, some pears (Pyrus species) can be grafted onto quince (Cydonia oblonga ), despite the generic difference. Whether a particular combination is compatible can only be discovered by testing.

Advantages of grafting

Despite being labor intensive, grafting is commonly undertaken as a means of vegetative propagation of woody plants for any or all of the following reasons: (1) to impart disease resistance or hardiness, contributed by the rootstock; (2) to shorten the time taken to first production of flowers or fruits by the scion, in some cases by many years; (3) to dwarf the scion, making both its height and shape more convenient for harvesting fruit, as with apples; (4) to allow scion cultivars to retain their desirable leaf, floral, or fruit characters, without the risk of these being lost through sexual reproduction; and (5) to provide the most economic use of scion material, in cases where there is some difficulty with stem cuttings producing roots.

History and important examples of grafting

The origin of grafting is uncertain. The peoples of ancient civilizations who grew fruit trees may have observed natural unions made by twigs and branches of compatible trees growing next to one another, and copied what had occurred through wind and abrasion. Grafting was applied routinely to apples and pears in England by the eighteenth century, and was utilized to great effect by the English plant breeder Thomas Andrew Knight (17591838). Thomas Jefferson (17431826) wrote that he had inoculated common cherry buds into stocks of large kind in 1767, in a garden journal he kept at Monticello. Jeffersons record predates Knights work, and indicates that knowledge of grafting techniques was widespread at that time.

Disease resistance

The rescue of the European wine grape (Vitis vin-ifera ) industry from the ravages of Phylloxera disease depended on grafting European cultivars onto Phylloxera-resistant rootstocks of native American species: the northern fox grape (Vitis labrusca ) and the southern muscadine (V. rotundifolia ). Since 1960 another American species, V. champini, has been widely utilized to confer additional resistance to V. vinifera to root-knot nematode worms. This new rootstock also confers salt tolerance, and hence is particularly useful for sultana grapes grown under irrigation.

The practice of grafting onto disease-resistant stocks now extends even to annual plants like tomato. Disease-sensitive cultivars producing high quality fruit, such as Grosse Lisse, are grafted onto wilt- and nem-atode-resistant stocks of varieties that would themselves produce fruit deficient in flavor and nutrients.

Hardiness of citrus trees

Most cultivated citrus trees are propagated by grafting desirable types onto hardy rootstocks. For example popular lemons such as Eureka, which has few thorns, is grafted as a bud onto a thorny wild or rough lemon (all lemons are Citrus limon ). For other types of citrus such as grapefruit and orange (C. sinensis ), use of the rough lemon or sour orange (C. aurantium ) as rootstock has been discontinued in favor of the wild orange (C. trifoliata ). As a rootstock the latter species can tolerate wetter conditions than the other stocks, and its use does not diminish the quality of sweet oranges as rootstocks of rough lemon do.

Hardiness in flowering shrubs

Among cool-temperate ornamental flowering shrubs, the lilac (Syringa vulgar is ) is often grafted onto privet (Ligustrum species), another example of

KEY TERMS

Cambium A layer of actively dividing cells, from which tissues used for conducting water and nutrients (xylem, phloem) are derived.

Graft incompatibility The failure of a scion to establish a viable connection with a rootstock, sometimes involving active rejection by release of toxins.

Hardiness The ability of a plant to withstand environmental stresses, such as extremes of temperature, low soil fertility, waterlogging, salinity, drought, ultraviolet light, or shade.

Hybrid A plant derived by crossing two distinct parents, which may be different species of the same genus, or varieties of the same species.

Phylloxera A fatal disease of grape vines caused by an infestation of the aphid Dactylasphaera viti-foliae in the roots.

Rootstock The basal component of a grafted plant.

Scion The upper or transferred component of a grafted plant.

Vegetative propagation A type of asexual reproduction in plants involving production of a new plant from the vegetative structuresstem, leaf, or rootof the parent plant.

rare, cross-generic compatibility. Rhododendrons, many of which have been deliberately bred for variants of flower size and color, are usually grafted onto a rootstock of Rhododendron ponticum. This species has pale purple flowers and is native from Spain and Portugal to Turkey. Rhododendron ponticum was the first rhododendron introduced to England in the mid-eighteenth century, and it is still the hardiest rootstock available, even surviving fires that destroy the above-ground scion.

See also Citrus trees;Plant breeding.

Resources

BOOKS

Hartmann, H.T., et. al. Plant Science: Growth, Development and Utilization of Cultivated Plants. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988.

Judd, Walter S., Christopher Campbell, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Michael J. Donoghue, and Peter Stevens. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. 2nd ed. with CD-ROM. Suderland, MD: Sinauer, 2002.

OTHER

University of Minnesota Extension Service Grafting and Budding Fruit Trees <http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/DG0532.html> (accessed November 25, 2006).

University of Georgia College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences. Propagating Deciduous Fruit Plants Common to Georgia <http://pubs.caes.uga.edu/caespubs/pubcd/B818.htm> (accessed November 25, 2006).

David R. Murray

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Graft

Graft

A graft is a horticultural term for a bud or shoot of one variety or species of plant that is positioned on the stem of another, compatible plant, in such a way that integrated growth results. The recipient plant is called the stock or rootstock, and the grafted part is referred to as the scion. A simple method for stem grafting involves both stems being cut with a sharp blade at the same acute angle , in order to maximize the area of contact. Then the stems are joined, and the union is bandaged with waterproof tape (or tape plus wax) until the wound has healed. Variations on this method involve complementary notches and the tongue being cut, according to how sturdy the scion is. Budding is the term applied when a bud with supporting tissue is grafted into a slit or notch cut into the stem of the stock.


Compatibility and incompatibility

The process of wound healing is absolutely necessary for successful grafting. Healing involves the cooperative production of new cells, some of which form cambium. From the cambium, new vascular (transport) tissues develop, permitting the transfer of water , nutrients , and hormones (growth regulators) to and from the scion. This interaction at the cellular level requires that the scion not be rejected by the stock. Hence, grafting is most likely to succeed with plants that are very closely related: either varieties of the same species, or members of the same genus. However, not all members of the same genus are compatible with each other. Sometimes the union can only be successful if one member is always the rootstock. For example, within the genus Prunus, peach scions cannot be grafted onto plum rootstocks, but plums can be grafted onto peach. Surprisingly, some pears (Pyrus species) can be grafted onto quince (Cydonia oblonga), despite the generic difference. Whether a particular combination is compatible can only be discovered by testing.


Advantages of grafting

Despite being labor intensive, grafting is commonly undertaken as a means of vegetative propagation of woody plants for any or all of the following reasons: (1) to impart disease resistance or hardiness, contributed by the rootstock; (2) to shorten the time taken to first production of flowers or fruits by the scion, in some cases by many years; (3) to dwarf the scion, making both its height and shape more convenient for harvesting fruit, as with apples; (4) to allow scion cultivars to retain their desirable leaf , floral, or fruit characters, without the risk of these being lost through sexual reproduction ; and (5) to provide the most economic use of scion material, in cases where there is some difficulty with stem cuttings producing roots.


History and important examples of grafting

The origin of grafting is uncertain. The peoples of ancient civilizations who grew fruit trees may have observed natural unions made by twigs and branches of compatible trees growing next to one another, and copied what had occurred through wind and abrasion. Grafting was applied routinely to apples and pears in England by the eighteenth century, and was utilized to great effect by the English plant breeder Thomas Andrew Knight. Thomas Jefferson wrote that he had "inoculated common cherry buds into stocks of large kind" in 1767, in a Garden Journal he kept for his residence Monticello in Virginia. Jefferson's record predates the work of Knight, and indicates that knowledge of grafting techniques was widespread at that time.

Disease resistance

The rescue of the European wine-grape (Vitis vinifera) industry from the ravages of Phylloxera disease depended on grafting European cultivars onto Phylloxera-resistant rootstocks of native American species: the northern fox grape (Vitis labrusca) and the southern muscadine (V. rotundifolia). Since 1960 another American species, V. champini, has been widely utilized to confer additional resistance to V. vinifera to root-knot nematode worms. This new rootstock also confers salt tolerance, and hence is particularly useful for sultana grapes grown under irrigation .

The practice of grafting onto disease-resistant stocks now extends even to annual plants like tomato. Disease-sensitive cultivars producing high quality fruit, such as Grosse Lisse, are grafted onto wilt and nematode resistant stocks of varieties that would themselves produce fruit deficient in flavor and nutrients.


Hardiness of citrus trees

Most cultivated citrus trees are propagated by grafting desirable types onto hardy rootstocks. For example popular lemon such as Eureka, which has few thorns, is grafted as a bud onto a thorny wild or rough lemon (all lemons are Citrus limon). For other types of citrus such as grapefruit and orange (C. sinensis), use of the rough lemon or sour orange (C. aurantium) as rootstock has been discontinued in favor of the wild orange (C. trifoliata). As a rootstock the latter species can tolerate wetter conditions than the other stocks, and its use does not diminish the quality of sweet oranges as rootstocks of rough lemon do.


Hardiness in flowering shrubs

Among cool-temperate ornamental flowering shrubs, the lilac (Syringa vulgaris) is often grafted onto privet (Ligustrum species), another example of rare, cross-generic compatibility. Rhododendrons, many of which have been deliberately bred for variants of flower size and color , are usually grafted onto a rootstock of Rhododendron ponticum. This species has pale purple flowers and is native from Spain and Portugal to Turkey. Rhododendron ponticum was the first rhododendron introduced to England in the mid-eighteenth century, and it is still the hardiest rootstock available, even surviving fires that destroy the above-ground scion.

See also Citrus trees; Plant breeding.


Resources

books

Hartmann, H.T., et. al. Plant Science: Growth, Development and Utilization of Cultivated Plants. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988.

Judd, Walter S., Christopher Campbell, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Michael J. Donoghue, and Peter Stevens. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. 2nd ed. with CD-ROM. Suderland, MD: Sinauer, 2002.


David R. Murray

KEY TERMS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cambium

—A layer of actively dividing cells, from which tissues used for conducting water and nutrients (xylem, phloem) are derived.

Graft incompatibility

—The failure of a scion to establish a viable connection with a rootstock, sometimes involving active rejection by release of toxins.

Hardiness

—The ability of a plant to withstand environmental stresses, such as extremes of temperature, low soil fertility, waterlogging, salinity, drought, ultraviolet light, or shade.

Hybrid

—A plant derived by crossing two distinct parents, which may be different species of the same genus, or varieties of the same species.

Phylloxera

—A fatal disease of grape vines caused by an infestation of the aphid Dactylasphaera vitifoliae in the roots.

Rootstock

—The basal component of a grafted plant.

Scion

—The upper or transferred component of a grafted plant.

Vegetative propagation

—A type of asexual reproduction in plants involving production of a new plant from the vegetative structures—stem, leaf, or root—of the parent plant.

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