Newfoundland and Labrador

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Newfoundland and Labrador (nyōō´fənlənd, nyōōfənlănd´; lăb´rədôr´), province (2001 pop. 512,930), 156,185 sq mi (404,519 sq km), E Canada. The province consists of the island of Newfoundland and adjacent islands (2001 pop. 485,066), 43,359 sq mi (112,300 sq km), and the mainland area of Labrador and adjacent islands (2001 pop. 27,864), 112,826 sq mi (292,219 sq km).

Land and People

Newfoundland island lies at the mouth of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and is bounded on the north, east, and south by the Atlantic Ocean and separated on the northwest from Labrador by the Strait of Belle Isle. Off Newfoundland's south shore lies the French overseas department of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Labrador, part of the Labrador-Ungava peninsula, forms the northeastern tip of the Canadian mainland. It is bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean down to the Strait of Belle Isle and on the south and west by Quebec. Cape Chidley, Labrador's northernmost point, is on the Hudson Strait.

Newfoundland has a rocky, deeply indented coast. Most of the island is a plateau, with many lakes and marshes; forests cover less than half the area. The inland wilderness abounds with fur-bearing animals, waterfowl, and fish; caribou graze on the tundra of the north. The Grand Banks, south of the island, was once one of the best cod-fishing areas in the world, but overfishing has severely depleted stocks, and the Atlantic cod fisheries were closed in 2003. The province has a generally cool and moist climate. In Labrador, the cold Labrador current brings below-freezing temperatures eight months of the year.

Most of Newfoundland's inhabitants are of English or Irish descent, but in sparsely populated Labrador the inhabitants are largely Inuit and Montagnais-Naskapi. The Beothuk, an indigenous people on the island of Newfoundland, died out in the 19th cent., presumably of European diseases. The population is centered on the island's southeastern Avalon Peninsula, the province's most important commercial and administrative region. The capital and largest city is St. John's. Corner Brook is the third largest city (following the St. John's suburb of Mount Pearl) and the second urban center in importance.

Economy and Higher Education

Labrador's cold climate and lack of transportation facilities have combined to retard economic development. However, Labrador is rich in mineral resources (iron, zinc, copper, asbestos, gold, oil, natural gas, nickel, cobalt), timber, and water power. Exploitation of the tremendous iron reserves in the southwest, begun in the 1950s, and the growth of the logging industry have brought new towns and roads, and the province provides about half of Canada's iron ore. There is a giant hydroelectric project at Churchill Falls. Oil fields discovered off the Newfoundland coast began production in 1997, and the oil industry has since become a driving force in the provincial economy. Enormous nickel-copper-cobalt deposits at Voisey's Bay, in NE Labrador, began to be mined in 2005.

Flounder, redfish, herring, salmon, lobster, and crab are among catches in the coastal waters. The processing of fish and the manufacture of wood products are also important. There are large pulp and paper mills at Grand Falls and Corner Brook, both on Newfoundland. Agriculture in the province is limited by the unfavorable soil and climate, and much of the food supply must be imported.

Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland is at St. John's.

History and Politics

Vikings visited the area of Newfoundland c.1000 and briefly established a settlement (the sole confirmed Viking site in North America) on Newfoundland at L'Anse aux Meadows. After the two voyages of John Cabot at the end of the 15th cent., fishermen and explorers from several European countries came to the area. In 1535–36, Jacques Cartier sailed through the Cabot Strait and the Strait of Belle Isle. Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed Newfoundland for England in 1583, and the first year-round settlers arrived in 1610. France contested England's claims, and Newfoundland changed hands several times.

The Treaty of Paris of 1763 definitively awarded Newfoundland and Labrador (where the French had established trading posts) to Great Britain. France retained the fishing rights on the northwest coast of Newfoundland that had been granted by the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 and was also awarded St. Pierre and Miquelon. In 1783 the "French Shore" was redefined to include the entire western coast.

In the early 19th cent. the Hudson's Bay Company developed the fur trade, and this, together with the expansion of the fishing industry, led to increased immigration from Europe, particularly Ireland. Representative government was introduced in 1832 and parliamentary government in 1855. The port of Heart's Content became the western terminus of the transatlantic cable in 1866. In 1869, Newfoundland voters rejected union with Canada; in 1895, after a disastrous fire in St. John's and the failure of local banks, negotiations to join Canada resumed but were unsuccessful.

Relatively little attention had been paid to Labrador, but in 1895 iron ore was discovered in the Grand Falls (now Churchill Falls) region. As part of the Anglo-French Entente Cordiale of 1904, France abandoned the French Shore. Possession of Labrador was disputed by Quebec and Newfoundland until 1927, when the British privy council demarcated the western boundary, enlarged Labrador's land area, and confirmed Newfoundland's title to it. The Canadian government accepted the decision, but Quebec has never officially recognized the boundary.

During the depression of the 1930s, Britain suspended Newfoundland's self-government and assumed administrative and financial control. Actual authority was exercised by a joint commission of Newfoundlanders and British. During World War II, U.S. and British military bases were established in Labrador and on Newfoundland.

After the war Newfoundland voted to join Canada, and in 1949 it became Canada's 10th province. Joseph Smallwood, a Liberal who led the drive to join Canada, became premier and held office until 1972, when the Progressive Conservatives gained a majority under Frank Moores and later (1979) A. Brian Peckford. Peckford was displaced 10 years later by Liberal Clyde K. Wells, and Wells was succeeded in 1996 by Liberal Brian Tobin, who was reelected in 1999. In the mid-1990s the province faced high unemployment and was hurt by the collapse of the cod-fishing industry, although a 1992 government ban on all cod fishing was partly lifted in 1997.

Liberal Roger Grimes succeeded Tobin as premier in 2001; the province was officially renamed Newfoundland and Labrador the same year. The reclosing of the Altantic cod fisheries in 2003 led to tensions between the province and the national government. In the 2003 assembly elections the Progressive Conservative party swept the Liberals from power; Danny Williams became premier. In 2005, as a result of a land claim settlement, Nunatsiavut, a large, self-governing Inuit area in N and central E Labrador, was established. Williams and his party won handily again in 2007. Williams retired in 2010 and was succeeded as premier by Kathy Dunderdale; the Progressive Conservatives remained in power after the 2011 elections.

Newfoundland and Labrador sends six senators and seven representatives to the national parliament.


See D. Henderson, The Heart of Newfoundland (1965); G. W. S. J. Chadwick, Newfoundland: Island into Province (1967); R. South, Biogeography and Ecology of the Island of Newfoundland (1983); P. F. Neary, Newfoundland in the North Atlantic World, 1929–1949 (1988).

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Newfoundland and Labrador


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Newfoundland and Labrador


Elizabeth Ave.
St. John's, NL, Canada A1C 5S7
Tel: (709)737-8000
Admissions: (709)737-3705
Fax: (709)737-4569
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:


Province-supported, university, coed. Awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Founded 1925. Setting: 220-acre urban campus. Endowment: $53.8 million. Research spending for 2004 fiscal year: $73.9 million. Total enrollment: 17,567. Faculty: 1,108 (1,081 full-time, 27 part-time). Student-undergrad faculty ratio is 14:1. 3,793 applied, 78% were admitted. Full-time: 12,685 students, 61% women, 39% men. Part-time: 2,247 students, 60% women, 40% men. Students come from 12 provinces and territories, 77 other countries, 11% from out-of province, 14% 25 or older, 10% live on campus, 4% transferred in. Retention: 81% of full-time freshmen returned the following year. Calendar: trimesters. Academic remediation for entering students, ESL program, services for LD students, advanced placement, accelerated degree program, honors program, distance learning, double major, summer session for credit, part-time degree program, adult/continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships, graduate courses open to undergrads. Off campus study at University of New Brunswick, University of New Mexico. Study abroad program.

Entrance Requirements:

Options: electronic application, early admission, early decision, deferred admission, international baccalaureate accepted. Required: high school transcript. Required for some: essay, 2 recommendations, interview, audition, portfolio. Entrance: moderately difficult. Application deadlines: Rolling, 3/1 for nonresidents.

Costs Per Year:

Application fee: $40 Canadian dollars. Tuition, fee, and room and board charges are reported in Canadian dollars. Province resident tuition: $2550 full-time, $85 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $464 full-time. College room and board: $4878. College room only: $1820. International student tuition: $8800 full-time.

Collegiate Environment:

Orientation program. Drama-theater group, choral group, student-run newspaper, radio station. Social organizations: 72 open to all. Most popular organizations: International Student Center, Students Older Than Average, Memorial's Organization for the Disabled, Biology Society, Student Parents at MUN. Major annual events: Winter Carnival, National University Week, Orientation. Student services: legal services, health clinic, personal-psychological counseling, women's center. Campus security: 24-hour emergency response devices and patrols, student patrols, late night transport-escort service. Options: coed, men-only, women-only housing available. Queen Elizabeth II Library plus 4 others with 1.7 million books, 2.8 million microform titles, 17,170 serials, 20,441 audiovisual materials, an OPAC, and a Web page. Operations spending for 2004 fiscal year: $12.2 million. 800 computers available on campus for general student use. A campuswide network can be accessed from student residence rooms and from off campus. Staffed computer lab on campus.

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House of Assembly - Newfoundland and Labrador
Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador Roberts, Hon. Edward Moxon. B. B.A., L.L.B.
Lieutenant Governors - Newfoundland and Labrador
The Williams Administration - Newfoundland and Labrador
Legislatures Since 1949 - Newfoundland and Labrador
List of Members - Newfoundland and Labrador
List of Constituencies - Newfoundland and Labrador
Biographies - Newfoundland and Labrador
Principal Officials of the House of Assembly - Newfoundland and Labrador
General Election - 2003: Newfoundland and Labrador
Previous General Elections - Newfoundland and Labrador
Standing of Parties - Newfoundland and Labrador


Confederation Date / Fit son entrée dans la Confédération
March 31, 1949 / le 31 mars 1949

Area / Superficie
Land / Terre - 371,690
Water / Eau - 34,030
Total - 405,720

(Census / Recensement): 1951 - 361,400; 1956 - 415,100; 1961 - 457,900; 1966 - 493,400; 1971 - 522,100; 1976 - 557,700; 1981 - 567,700; 1986 - 568,300; 1991 - 568,479; 1996 - 570,711; 2001 - 533,800; (Estimate/Estimation 2004) - 517,027

Capital / Capitale
St. John's / St-Jean

Major Cities and Metropolitan Areas / Villes et régions métropolitaines principales (Estimate/ Estimation 2004)
Metropolitan St. John's / St-Jean métropolitain: 179,700
Corner Brook: 20,009 (2001)
Conception Bay South: 17,904 (2001)
Grand Falls-Windsor: 12,738 (2001)
Bay Roberts: 10,163 (2001)

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Newfoundland and Labrador


Elizabeth Ave.
St. John's, NL, Canada A1C 5S7
Tel: (709)737-8000
Admissions: (709)737-3705
Fax: (709)737-4569
E-mail: [email protected]
Web Site:
President/CEO: Dr. Axel Meisen
Admissions: Marian Abbott
Financial Aid: Dr. Lilly J. Walker
Type: University Sex: Coed % Accepted: 78 Admission Plans: Early Admission; Early Decision Plan; Deferred Admission Application Deadline: Rolling Application Fee: $40.00 H.S. Requirements: High school diploma required; GED not accepted. For mature students (over 21 years), senior citizens: High school diploma or equivalent not required Costs Per Year: Application fee: $40 Canadian dollars. Tuition, fee, and room and board charges are reported in Canadian dollars. Province resident tuition: $2550 full-time, $85 per credit hour part-time. Mandatory fees: $464 full-time. College room and board: $4878. College room only: $1820. International student tuition: $8800 full-time. Calendar System: Trimester, Summer Session Available Enrollment: FT 12,685, PT 2,247, Grad 2,395 Faculty: FT 1,081, PT 27 Student-Faculty Ratio: 14:1 % Residing in College-Owned, -Operated, or -Affiliated Housing: 10 Library Holdings: 1,701,350 Credit Hours For Degree: 120 credit hours, Bachelors Professional Accreditation: AACSB, LCMEAMA Intercollegiate Athletics: Basketball M & W; Cross-Country Running M & W; Soccer M & W; Swimming and Diving M & W; Volleyball M & W; Wrestling M & W

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Newfoundland and Labrador Province in e Canada, on the Atlantic Ocean, consisting of the mainland region of Labrador and the island of Newfoundland plus adjacent islands; the capital is St John's (in Newfoundland). Norsemen are believed to have landed on the coast of Labrador 1000. John Cabot reached the island in 1497. The region became a British colony in 1824. It remained apart from the rest of Canada until 1949, when it became the country's tenth province. The island of Newfoundland is a plateau with many lakes and marshes. Labrador has tundra in the n, and the cold climate and lack of transport facilities have hindered economic development. There are, however, valuable mineral resources. Timber is an important industry, and the Grand Banks is one of the world's best cod-fishing areas. Area: 404,420sq km (156,185sq mi). Pop. (2001) 512,930.

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Newfoundland and Labrador

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Newfoundland and Labrador

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