Pronunciation(1) Newfoundland speech is mainly RHOTIC. (2) There is English West Country influence in initial /v/ for /f/ and /z/ for /s/: ‘a vine zummer’ for a fine summer. (3) There is Irish influence in /t, d/ for /ɵ, ð/: ‘tree of dem’ for three of them. (4) Initial /h/ is unstable, sometimes added before the vowels of stressed syllables (‘helbow’ for elbow), sometimes dropped (‘eel’ for heel). (5) Final consonant clusters are often simplified: ‘a sound in the loff’ for a sound in the loft. (6) Certain vowel distinctions are commonly not made: boy is a HOMOPHONE of buy, speak rhymes with break and port with part.
GrammarDialect usage includes: (1) The use of is or 'm for present forms of be: I is, you is, he is, we is, they is; I'm, you'm, we'm, they'm. (2) The negative forms baint'e are you not, I idden I am not, you idden you are not, he idden he is not, tidden it is not (reflecting West Country influence). (3) Distinctive forms of do, have, be: They doos their work; I haves a lot of colds; It bees cold here in winter; Do Mary work here?; Have she finished?; 'Tis cold here now. (4) In some areas, an -s in all simple present-tense verb forms (I goes, he goes, we goes, etc.), distinguishing the full-verb use from the auxiliary use of do, have, and be. (5) Weak rather than strong forms in some irregular verbs: ‘knowed’ for knew, ‘throwed’ for threw. (6) Four variants for the perfect: I've done, I've adone, I bin done, I'm after doin. (7) He/she as substitutes for inanimate countable nouns: We'd have what we'd call a flake-beam, a stick, say, he'd be thirty feet long. (8) In some areas, the form un or ən as a masculine pronoun and for it: Tom kicked un (the shovel). If, however, the shovel rather than the rake is stressed, he is used: Tom kicked he. (9) Some expressions of HIBERNO-ENGLISH origin: It's angry you will be; It's myself that wants it.
Vocabulary(1) Expressions that are archaic or obsolete elsewhere: angishore a weak, miserable person (from Irish Gaelic ain dei seoir), sometimes transformed to hangashore; bavin brushwood used for kindling; brewis (from SCOTS, pronounced ‘brooze’) stew (applied to a mix of soaked ship's biscuits, salt codfish, and pork fat). (2) Words for natural phenomena, occupations, activities, etc., such as terms for seals at various stages of development: bedlamer, dotard, gun seal, jar, nog-head, ragged-jacket, turner, white coat. (3) A local word familiar elsewhere in Canada is screech, a potent dark rum (from Scots screech whisky). (4) A livyer (live here) is a permanent inhabitant, while a comefrom-away (sometimes shortened to CFA) is an outsider or mainlander. See DIALECT (CANADA), IRISH ENGLISH, MARITIME PROVINCES.
"NEWFOUNDLAND ENGLISH." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 15, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/newfoundland-english
"NEWFOUNDLAND ENGLISH." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Retrieved April 15, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/newfoundland-english
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.