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Tallinn

Tallinn (tä´lĬn), Ger. Reval, city (1994 pop. 442,679), capital of Estonia, on the Gulf of Finland, opposite Helsinki. It is a major Baltic port, a rail and highway junction, and an industrial center. Tallinn also has military and naval installations. Industries include shipbuilding, metalworking, food and fish processing, and the manufacture of machinery and electrical consumer goods. Tourism is also important. The population is about 55% Estonian and about 40% Russian and Ukrainian. Tallinn contains the Estonian Academy of Sciences, the Estonian National Museum of Art, and many other educational and cultural institutions.

Tallinn was first mentioned by the Arab geographer Idrisi in 1154. It was destroyed in 1219 by Waldemar II of Denmark, who built a fortress there. The city's name comes from the Estonian Taani linn ( "Danish castle" ). A member of the Hanseatic League from 1285, Tallinn was sold (1346) with the rest of Estonia by Waldemar IV to the Livonian Brothers of the Sword. Upon the dissolution of the Livonian Order in 1561, it passed to Sweden. Captured by Peter I in 1710 during the Northern War, Tallinn was ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. It underwent development as a port for Russia's Baltic fleet and in 1870 was linked by rail with St. Petersburg. Tallinn became the capital of independent Estonia in 1919 and of the Estonian SSR in 1940. It suffered considerable damage during the German occupation in World War II. In 1991, it again became the capital of an independent Estonia.

The historical center of Tallinn consists of an upper town, on a steep hill topped by a medieval cathedral, and an adjoining lower town dating from Hanseatic times. The picturesque lower town is surrounded by a medieval wall with massive round towers. Its landmarks include the 13th-century Danish Toompea Castle (rebuilt in 1935 as a government building), the 13th-century Gothic Church of St. Olai, and the 14th-century city hall.

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Tallinn

Tallinn (Talin) Capital and largest city of Estonia, on the Gulf of Finland, opposite Helsinki. Founded (1219) by the Danes, it became a member of the Hanseatic League in 1285. It passed to Sweden in 1561, and was ceded to Russia in 1721. Developed in the 19th century for Russia's Baltic Fleet, it remains a major port and industrial centre. It was badly damaged in World War 2. Industries: machinery, cables, paper. Pop. (2000) 404,000.

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Tallinn

TallinnAlun, Malin, Tallinn •Jacklin • franklin •chaplain, Chaplin •ratline •Carlin, marlin, marline, Stalin •Helen, Llewelyn •Mechlin •Emlyn, gremlin, Kremlin •Galen • capelin • kylin • Evelyn •Enniskillen, penicillin, villein •Hamelin • Marilyn • discipline •Colin, Dolin •goblin, hobgoblin •Loughlin •Joplin, poplin •compline • tarpaulin •Magdalen, maudlin •bowline, pangolin •Ventolin • moulin • Lublin • Brooklyn •masculine • insulin • globulin •mullein • Dublin • dunlin • muslin •kaolin • chamberlain • Michelin •madeleine • Mary Magdalene •Gwendolen • francolin • mescaline •formalin • lanolin •adrenalin, noradrenalin •crinoline • zeppelin • cipolin •Carolyn • Jocelyn • porcelain • Ritalin •Ottoline •javelin, ravelin •Rosalyn •merlin, purlin •Dunfermline • purslane

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Tallinn

TALLINN

TALLINN (Ger. Reval ; Rus. Revel ), capital of Estonia. Jews are mentioned in municipal documents from the 14th century. In 1561, when Tallinn was captured by the Swedes, Jewish settlement was prohibited and remained so until 1710, when the city was annexed by Russia. Although outside the *Pale of Settlement, Jewish merchants visited Tallinn and some even settled there, only to be expelled subsequently. In 1828 Jewish conscripts were brought there to be educated in a *Cantonist institution. These youths, as well as other Jewish soldiers stationed in Tallinn, founded the local Jewish community. There was a synagogue founded in 1856 as well as a Jewish cemetery. At that time there were about 60 families of Jewish soldiers in the city. After 1856 they were joined by other Jews permitted to reside outside the Pale of Settlement, and thus the Jewish population grew considerably. In 1897 it numbered 1,193 (2% of the total). The community continued to develop after the establishment of independent Estonia, numbering 1,929 in 1922, and 2,203 in 1934. By that time there was a network of Hebrew educational institutions from kindergarten to secondary school. With the annexation of Estonia to Soviet Russia in 1940, organized Jewish life came to an end (see *Estonia). In 1959, 3,717 Jews were registered in Tallinn (1.3%), of whom 25% declared Yiddish to be their mother tongue. In 1970 there were 3,754 Jews, dropping to around 1,000 in 2005 due to emigration mainly to Israel. In 2005 the Jewish community of Tallinn had a synagogue, community center, kindergarten, Sunday school, summer camp, and burial society. In September of 2005, ground was broken in Tallinn to build the first new synagogue in Estonia in almost a century

bibliography:

K. Yoktan, Di Geshikhte fun di Yidn in Estland (1927); N. Genss, Zur Geschichte der Juden in Eesti (1933); idem, Bibliografia judaica Eestis (1937).

[Yehuda Slutsky /

Ruth Beloff (2nd ed.)]

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