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Nottingham

Nottingham, city and unitary authority (1991 pop. 273,300), central England, on the Trent River. A center of rail and road transportation, the city's most important industries are the manufacture of lace, hosiery, cotton, and silk. The long-established textile industry greatly profited from the inventions of James Hargreaves and Richard Arkwright. Cigarettes, bicycles, and pharmaceuticals are among Nottingham's many other products. The historic county seat of Nottinghamshire, the city became independent of the county in 1998.

In the 9th cent., Nottingham was one of the Danish Five Boroughs. In the 12th cent., much of it was destroyed by fire. Parliaments were held in Nottingham in 1334, 1337, and 1357. In 1642, Nottingham was the scene of Charles I unfurling his banner, marking the beginning of the civil war. Early in the 19th cent., Luddites were active in the city. The 17th-century castle overlooking the Trent River was burned in 1831 during Reform Bill riots. It was restored in 1878 and now houses an art museum. The earlier Norman castle on the same site was once the prison of David II of Scotland and the headquarters of Richard III before the battle of Bosworth Field.

Other features of interest are the council house (city hall), a Roman Catholic cathedral (designed by A. W. Pugin), the 16th-century grammar school (now a high school), the Univ. of Nottingham (1948), and St. Peter's Church, part of which dates from the 12th cent. According to tradition, Robin Hood was born in Nottingham. William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, was born there in 1829.

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Nottingham

Nottingham. County town of Nottinghamshire, situated on the river Trent, and a city since 1897. It is first recorded as one of the ‘five boroughs’ of the Danes, succeeded by an English fortified town (burh) after 921. It quickly became a county town, and was extended after 1066 with a new ‘French borough’ and a major castle. In the 12th and 13th cents. it became a regional centre with self-government, town walls, and a major fair. The castle remained a royal stronghold, and it was at Nottingham that Charles I raised his standard in 1642. After the Restoration the town became a social centre for the county gentry, and the duke of Newcastle built a mansion on the site of the castle. Industry developed after 1700 with framework-knitting, and later lace-making, and the town grew rapidly. The burgesses, however, refused to enclose the surrounding open fields, and overcrowding became desperate. Not surprisingly, the Lords' rejection of the second Reform Bill in 1831 provoked riots, and the castle (the duke of Newcastle's mansion) was burned. By the time the fields were enclosed in 1845, the damage was done, and not until the 20th cent. did slum clearance remove Nottingham's notorious courts and alleys.

David M. Palliser

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Nottingham

Nottingham City and county town of Nottinghamshire, on the River Trent, n central England. Originally a 6th-century Anglo-Saxon settlement, it is the traditional birthplace of Robin Hood. The city grew rapidly in the 19th century, becoming famous for the manufacture of fine lace, cotton and hosiery. Industries: textiles, engineering, bicycles, electronic equipment, pharmaceuticals. Pop. (1994 est.) 282,440.

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Nottingham

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Nottingham

NOTTINGHAM

NOTTINGHAM , industrial city in the E. Midlands, England. In the 13th century Nottingham was one of the 27 centers in which an *archa was established for the registration of Jewish debts. An attack was made on the Nottingham Jews during the Barons' Revolt in 1264. From the resettlement until the 19th century only individual Jews settled in the city. By 1805 there was a small, organized community; a cemetery was acquired in 1822; and by 1880 there were about 50 Jewish residents, though a synagogue was not built until 1890. The Nottingham lace-curtain industry was founded by a Jewish immigrant from Germany, Lewis Heymann. By 1939, the community had increased to 180, but World War ii brought an influx of new residents. In addition to an Orthodox synagogue there was a Progressive congregation; communal institutions included a Zionist Association and a University Jewish Society. In 1969 the community was estimated at 1,500 (out of a total population of 310,000), and in the mid-1990s it was estimated at about 1,050. The 2001 British census found 627 Jews by religion in Nottingham. There is a Nottingham Representative Council and an Orthodox and a Progressive synagogue.

bibliography:

C. Roth, The Rise of Provincial Jewry (1950), 27–89; J. Spungin, A Short History of the Jews of Nottingham (1951).

[Vivian David Lipman]

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