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Qom

QOM

Shrine town in Iran.

The city of Qom (also Qum), 92 miles (148 km) south of Tehran, is, after Mashhad (the burial place of the eighth Shiʿite imam, Ali Reza), the second most important shrine town in Iran. The sister of Imam Reza, Hazrat-e Fatima, is buried in Qom. The city was a winter capital as well as a royal mausoleum town during medieval times and was strongly patronized when the Shiʿite Safavids came to power during the sixteenth century. In 1920 a religious center of learning (hauzeh-ye ilmiyeh) was established in the city by Shaykh Abd al-Karim Ha'eri Yazdi. Through its madrasas (religious schools) Qom is one of the main centers of Islamic studies in Iran today. With the accession to power of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and the modernization reforms undertaken, the town soon became the scene of a struggle between the monarchy and the religious establishment. The first major episode of violence that precipitated the Iranian Revolution of 1979 occurred there. When Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returned to Iran in 1979 as the leader of the revolution, he established his headquarters in the Madrasa-y Faiziyeh in Qom.

see also iranian revolution (1979).

parvaneh pourshariati

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Qom

Qom (kôm), city (1991 pop. 681,253), Tehran prov., W central Iran. Located in a semiarid region, it is an industrial and transportation center. Its manufactures include textiles, glass, pottery, and shoes. Large deposits of petroleum have been found in the area. Qom has been a center of the Shiite Muslims since early Islamic times and is the burial place of Fatima al-Masuma (d. 816), sister of Imam Riza. The city became a center of pilgrimage in the 17th cent., and an imposing shrine was erected over Fatima's tomb. Qom was pillaged by the Afghans in 1722, but in the 19th cent. its great shrine was lavishly restored and embellished. The city is also known as Qum and Kum.

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Qom

Qom. Iranian town, south of Teheran, a major centre for the training of Shīʿa Muslim teachers and leaders. The tomb of Hazrat-i- Fātima, the sister of the eighth Imam, ʿAli al-Rida, is located here, and it is the most important place of pilgrimage after his own tomb at Mashhad. In 1978 the first outbreak of protest against the Pahlavi rulers occurred in Qom.

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Qom

Qom City in w central Iran. The burial place of Fatima, her shrine is a place of pilgrimage for Shi'ite Muslims. Industries: textiles, rugs, pottery, glass, shoes. Pop. (2002) 893,500.

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