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Jiangsu (Kiangsu) Province in e China; the capital is Nanjing. Under the rule of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), it became a separate province in the 18th century. Taken by Japan in 1937, the province was freed by Chinese nationalists in 1945 but fell to the Chinese communists in 1949. One of China's smallest and most densely populated provinces, it is an extremely fertile region that includes the delta of the River Yangtze. It is also highly industrialized. Shanghai (the largest city) is the chief manufacturing centre of China. Products: rice, cotton, wheat, barley, soya beans, peanuts, tea. Industries: silk, oil refining, textiles, food processing, cement. Area: 102,240sq km (39,474sq mi). Pop. (1999 est.) 72,130,000.