Nanjing (Nanking) City on the River Yangtze, e China; capital of Jiangsu province. Founded in the 8th century bc, it served as the capital of China at various times. The Treaty of Nanking (1842) ended the Opium War and opened five Chinese ports to foreign trade. It was the seat of Sun Yat-sen's provisional presidency in 1912. In 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War, the city was captured by the Japanese, who massacred more than 100,000 of the population. Notable landmarks include the city-wall and the tombs of the Ming emperors. Industries: iron and steel, oil refining, chemicals. Pop. (2002 est.) 1,799,900.
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