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Benedict XV (1854–1922). Pope from 3 Sept. 1914. His pontificate was dominated by the First World War: the first of Benedict's twelve encyclicals dealt with peace, and he was deeply distressed by the failure of his 1917 peace initiative. He speeded the publication of the first code of canon law, and worked for an understanding between the Holy See and the kingdom of Italy.
Benedict XV (1854–22) Pope (1914–22), b. Giacomo della Chiesa. During World War I, Benedict strove for peace among nations, stressing pacifist idealism. He tried to unite all Roman Catholics, made changes in the Curia, and published a new Code of Canon Law.