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Halidon Hill, battle of

Halidon Hill, battle of, 1333. For years after the great victory of Bannockburn in 1314 Scotland was in a powerful position, confirmed by the treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton in 1328. But the death of Robert Bruce in 1329, leaving a young son David II, encouraged Edward III to intervene once more, supporting the claims of Edward Balliol. In the spring of 1333 Edward besieged Berwick in person. Sir Archibald Douglas led a large Scottish army to the rescue. At Halidon Hill, just north-west of Berwick, the armies met on 19 July. The Scots had to attack up the hill and suffered severely from English arrows. Their heavy losses included Douglas. Balliol was reinstated as king of Scotland and Berwick passed into English possession permanently.

J. A. Cannon

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Hill, David Octavius

David Octavius Hill, 1802–70, and Robert Adamson, 1821–48, Scottish pioneer photographers. Hill was a painter of romantic Scottish landscapes. In 1843 he was commissioned to make a group portrait of the 470 clergymen who founded the Free Church of Scotland. He required an assistant to make the calotypes from which he would work, and he hired Adamson as a partner. Distinguished persons from many fields came to be photographed by the partners. Together they made (1843–48) more than 1,000 portraits and numerous views of Edinburgh before Adamson died at 27. Hill returned to painting and the partners' great work was not rediscovered until 1872.

See study by H. Schwarz (tr. 1931).

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