Battle of Bannockburn

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Bannockburn, battle of, 1314. Early in 1314 Edward II assembled a large army to restore his crumbling authority in Scotland and to relieve Stirling castle, besieged by supporters of Robert I Bruce. The English had a marked superiority in numbers and thought it unlikely that the Scots would offer a pitched battle. But Bruce massed his spearmen, dug pits to protect them from the cavalry, and in a preliminary encounter on 23 June, the English knights suffered badly. On the following day, the Scots gained the upper hand in heavy fighting and the English fell back in confusion. Edward was forced to flee and narrowly escaped capture. The Scottish victory was decisive and reaffirmed the independence of the country.

J. A. Cannon

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Battle of Bannockburn a battle which took place near Stirling in central Scotland in 1314, in which the English army of Edward II, advancing to break the siege of Stirling Castle, was defeated by the Scots under Robert the Bruce, who subsequently re-established Scotland as a separate kingdom.