Saarinen, Gottlieb Eliel
In 1904 Saarinen himself won the competition to design the Helsinki Central Railway Station (erected 1910–14), one of the finest termini of the period, comparable with Leipzig (1905) and Stuttgart (1911—which was influenced by the Helsinki exemplar), having massive masonry walls and a noble composition strongly influenced by the school of Otto Wagner and the work of the Wiener Werkstätte, notably Hoffmann. He came second in the competition to design the Chicago Tribune Building (1922), which made his name in the USA and led to the commission to design the Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, MI. Saarinen designed the Cranbrook School for Boys (1926–30) and the Kingswood School for Girls (1929–30) there, followed by the Institute of Science (1931–3), and Museum and Library (1940–3). This beautiful series of Picturesque buildings was evolved in collaboration with his second wife, Louise ( Loja) Gesellius (1879–1968), and is freely eclectic, incorporating Expressionist, round-arched, and vernacular elements. He was President of the Cranbrook Academy of Art from 1932 to 1942, and was joined by his son, Eero, and by Charles Eames, who both taught there. His published works include The Cranbrook Development (1931), The City: Its Growth, Its Decay, Its Future (1943), Search for Form (1948), and The Search for Form in Art and Architecture (1985).
Gaidos (ed.) (1972);
Hausen et al. (1990);
Lampugnani (ed.) (1988);
Placzek (ed.) (1982);
E. Saarinen (1931, 1943, 1948);
Jane Turner (1996)
Eliel Saarinen (ĕl´ēĕl sä´rĬnĕn), 1873–1950, Finnish-American architect and city planner, resident of the United States after 1923. In Finland, Saarinen's most celebrated building was the railway station in Helsinki. He took second prize in the Chicago Tribune Tower competition in 1922. At the Cranbrook Foundation in Bloomfield Hills, Mich., he designed several buildings and also headed the Academy of Art. His other major works include the Crow Island Elementary School, Winnetka, Ill. (1939); two churches in Columbus, Ind. (1941–42), and Minneapolis, Minn. (1949), and the music shed for the Berkshire Festival (now Tanglewood Music Festival) at Lenox and Stockbridge, Mass. His later designs were made in collaboration with his son, Eero Saarinen.