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Wiener Werkstätte. Literally ‘Vienna Workshop’, founded in 1903 to emulate English Arts-and-Crafts workshops, such as the Guild of Handicrafts of C. R. Ashbee. It grew partly from the Sezession exhibition of 1900 that included designs by Mackintosh and Ashbee. By 1905 the Werkstätte was employing over 100 people, most of the artefacts being designed by Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser (1868–1918). It became the centre for progressive design in Austria-Hungary, promoting a severe rectilinear style. It ceased operations in 1932.
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