Barbarossa

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Barbarossa (1466–1546) (Redbeard) Name given by Christians to two Muslim privateers in the Mediterranean, Aruj (d.1518) and Khizr or Khayr ad-Din (d.1546). Aruj was killed in battle against the Spanish, but Khayr seized Algiers from Spain (1533), took Tunis (1534), raided Christian coasts and shipping and gained control of the Barbary States. He acknowledged the Ottoman sultan as his overlord, and was commander (1533–44) of the fleet of Suleiman I (the Magnificent), which controlled the e Mediterranean. His forces were defeated by Spain and Italy in the Battle of Lepanto.

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BarbarossaAlissa, Clarissa, kisser, Larissa, Marisa, Melissa, Orissa, reminiscer •fixer, mixer, sixer •convincer, mincer, pincer, rinser, wincer •Amritsar, Maritsa, spritzer •howitzer • kibitzer • purchaser •artificer • officer • surfacer • Pulitzer •Wurlitzer • promiser • harnesser •menacer •practiser (US practicer) •de-icer, dicer, enticer, gricer, paise, pricer, ricer, slicer, splicer •Schweitzer •Barbarossa, dosser, embosser, fossa, glosser, josser, Ossa, Saragossa, tosser •boxer • sponsor • matzo • bobbysoxer •Chaucer, courser, endorser (US indorser), enforcer, forcer, reinforcer, saucer, Xhosa •balsa, waltzer •dowser, grouser, Hausa, mouser, Scouser •announcer, bouncer, denouncer, pouncer, pronouncer, renouncer, trouncer •schnauzer

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Barbarossa (bär´bərŏs´ə) [Ital.,=red-beard], surname of the Turkish corsair Khayr ad-Din (c.1483–1546). Barbarossa and his brother Aruj, having seized (1518) Algiers from the Spanish, placed Algeria under Turkish suzerainty. He extended his conquests to the rest of the Barbary States. Between 1533 and 1544, as admiral of the Turkish fleet under Sulayman I, he twice defeated Andrea Doria and ravaged the coasts of Greece, Spain, and Italy. His able son Hasan (d. 1572) succeeded him in Algeria.

See biography by E. D. S. Bradford (1969).

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Barbarossa nickname (‘Redbeard’) of Frederick I (c.1123–90), king of Germany and Holy Roman emperor.

Barbarossa was the code name for the military operation in which Hitler's armies launched their invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.


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Barbarossa (German King): see ADRIAN IV.