Noted Venetian family of humanists, statesmen, and churchmen.
Francesco, statesman and humanist; b. Venice, c. 1398; d. Venice, January 1454. A student of Manuel Chrysoloras, he was tutored in letters and Greek, and then studied at the University of Padua. He entered the Venetian senate in 1418 and was ambassador to Florence, Verona, Bologna, and other important Italian cities, as well as to the court of Pope martin v. In 1438 he led the defense of Brescia against Filippo Maria visconti, Duke of Milan, whose ambitions he considered the greatest danger to Venice. Francesco desired peace for all Italy. Active in negotiations for the Council of Basel-ferrara-florence, he tried to effect religious unity with the Greek Church and urged that steps be taken to prevent Constantinople from falling to the Turks. He wrote De re uxorio libri II in 1415 and was acquainted with most of the Italian humanists of his time (see humanism). His letters, Orationum ac epistolarum libri XV, were edited by A. Quirini (Brescia 1743), whose edition was improved by R. Sabbadini (Salerno 1884) and L. Frati (Venice 1888).
Nicolo (dates uncertain), Venetian ambassador to constantinople, wrote a report of its siege and capture by the Turks in 1453, Giornale dell'assedio di Constantinopoli, which was published by both A. Sagredo (Venice 1856) and E. Cornet (Vienna 1856).
Ermolao the Elder, churchman and humanist, brother of Francesco; b. Venice, c. 1410; d. Venice, March 12, 1471. He became bishop of Treviso, Oct. 16, 1443, and of Verona, Nov. 16, 1453. In 1453 he wrote Oratio contra poetas objecting to excessive adulation of the ancient poets. His works are unpublished.
Ermolao the Younger, patriarch of aquileia, humanist, churchman, diplomat, nephew of Ermolao; b. Venice, May 21, 1454; d. Rome, June 14, 1493. At the age of eight, he was sent to Rome to study under Pomponius Laetus; by 1477 he was professor of philosophy at the University of Padua. He served as Venetian ambassador to Milan in 1488 and to the court of Pope innocent viii in 1491. Though he was named patriarch of Aquileia by Innocent on March 6, 1491, the Venetians prevented him from taking possession of his see because he had accepted it without consent of the senate. He remained in Rome and died of the plague. His principal work is Castigationes, against Pliny the Elder; he also translated some of the writings of Aristotle into Latin. His Epistolae, orationes et carmina are edited by V. Branca, 2 v. (Florence 1943).
Daniele, statesman, patriarch of Aquileia; b. Venice, Feb. 8, 1513; d. Venice, April 12, 1570. He was a student and professor at Padua, who in 1548 became ambassador to England. Though named patriarch of Aquileia (Dec. 17, 1550) by Pope Julius III, he never governed it; the patriarchate continued to be administered by Giovanni Grimani in order to prevent a non-Venetian from obtaining the position. In 1562 Daniele began active participation in the Council of Trent. His works can be found in J. Morelli, Codices manuscripti latini bibliothecae Nanianae (Venice 1776) 4, 31–32, 198.
Francesco, patriarch of Aquileia, reformer; b. Venice; d. Venice, April 27, 1616. On Oct. 7, 1585, he became archbishop of Tyre, then vicar-general and coadjutor with right of succession to Giovanni Grimani, whom he succeeded on Oct. 3, 1593. He combatted heresy and, in his attempts to effect the reforms of Trent, opened a seminary at Udine in 1601.
Ermolao, patriarch of Aquileia; d. Venice, Dec. 22, 1622. He had been archbishop of Tyre and coadjutor to his brother Francesco whom he succeeded as patriarch, but because of wars of the Uscocchi he could never take possession of his see.
Bibliography: Francesco, statesman. g. m. mazzuchelli, Gli scrittori d'ltalia, 2 v. (Brescia 1753–63) 2:264–69. p. gothein, Francesco B.: Früh-Humanismus und Staatkunst in Venedig (Berlin 1932). Ermolao the Elder. g. m. mazzuchelli, op. cit. 2:253–56. Daniele. p. paschini, "I scritti religiosi di Daniele Barbaro," Rivista di storia della Chiesa iri Italia 5 (1951) 340–49. Francesco, patriarch. p. paschini, "Riforma e contro-riforma al confine nord-orientale d'Italia," L'Arcadia 4 (1922) 72-. Ermolao, patriarch. e. a. cicogna, Iscrizióni veneziane, 6 v. in 7 (Venice 1825–53) v.4. p. paschini and m. t. disdier, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques 6:582–90.
[w. h. wallaik]