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Lynn Margulis

Lynn Margulis

Lynn Margulis (born 1938) is a renowned theoretical biologist and professor of botany at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Her research on the evolutionary links between cells containing nuclei (eukaryotes) and cells without nuclei (prokaryotes) led her to formulate a symbiotic theory of evolution that was initially spurned in the scientific community but has become more widely accepted.

Margulis, the eldest of four daughters, was born in Chicago on March 5, 1938. Her father, Morris Alexander, was a lawyer who owned a company that developed and marketed a long-lasting thermoplastic material used to mark streets and highways. He also served as an assistant state's attorney for the state of Illinois. Her mother, Leone, operated a travel agency. When Margulis was fifteen, she completed her second year at Hyde Park High School and was accepted into an early entrant program at the University of Chicago.

Margulis was particularly inspired by her science courses, in large part because reading assignments consisted not of textbooks but of the original works of the world's great scientists. A course in natural science made an immediate impression and would influence her life, raising questions that she has pursued throughout her career: What is heredity? How do genetic components influence the development of offspring? What are the common bonds between generations? While at the University of Chicago she met Carl Sagan, then a graduate student in physics. At the age of nineteen, she married Sagan, received a B.A. in liberal arts, and moved to Madison, Wisconsin, to pursue a joint master's degree in zoology and genetics at the University of Wisconsin under the guidance of noted cell biologist Hans Ris. In 1960 she and Sagan moved to the University of California at Berkeley, where she conducted genetic research for her doctoral dissertation.

The marriage to Sagan ended before she received her doctorate. She moved to Waltham, Massachusetts, with her two sons, Dorion and Jeremy, to accept a position as lecturer in the department of biology at Brandeis University. She was awarded her Ph.D. in 1965. The following year, she became an adjunct assistant of biology at Boston University, leaving twenty-two years later as full professor. During her tenure at Boston University she taught two or three courses per semester and directed a $100,000-a-year research lab. In 1967 she married crystallographer Thomas N. Margulis. The couple had two children before they divorced in 1980. Since 1988, Margulis has been a distinguished university professor with the Department of Botany at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

Her interest in genetics and the development of cells can be traced to her earliest days as a University of Chicago undergraduate. She always questioned the commonly accepted theories of genetics, however, challenging the traditionalists by presenting hypotheses that contradicted current beliefs. She has been called the most gifted theoretical biologist of her generation by numerous colleagues. A profile of Margulis by Jeanne McDermott in the Smithsonian quotes Peter Raven, director of the Missouri Botanical Garden and a MacArthur fellow: "Her mind keeps shooting off sparks. Some critics say she's off in left field. To me she's one of the most exciting, original thinkers in the whole field of biology." Although few know more about cellular biology, Margulis considers herself a "microbial evolutionist," mapping out a field of study that doesn't in fact exist.

As a graduate student, Margulis became interested in cases of non-Mendelian inheritance, occurring when the genetic make-up of a cell's descendants cannot be traced solely to the genes in a cell's nucleus. For several years, she concentrated her research on a search for genes in the cytoplasm of cells, the area outside of the cell's nucleus. In the early 1960s, Margulis presented evidence for the existence of extranuclear genes. She and other researchers had found DNA in the cytoplasm of plant cells, indicating that heredity in higher organisms is not solely determined by genetic information carried in the cell nucleus. Her continued work in this field led her to formulate the serial endosymbiotic theory, or SET, which offered a new approach to evolution as well as an account of the origin of cells with nuclei.

Prokaryotes—bacteria and blue-green algae, now commonly referred to as cyanobacteria—are single-celled organisms that carry genetic material in the cytoplasm. Margulis proposes that eukaryotes (cells with nuclei) evolved when different kinds of prokaryotes formed symbiotic systems to enhance their chances for survival. The first such symbiotic fusion would have taken place between fermenting bacteria and oxygen-using bacteria. All cells with nuclei, Margulis contends, are derived from bacteria that formed symbiotic relationships with other primordial bacteria some two billion years ago. It has now become widely accepted that mitochondria—those components of eukaryotic cells that process oxygen—are remnants of oxygen-using bacteria. Margulis' hypothesis that cell hairs, found in a vast array of eukaryotic cells, descend from another group of primordial bacteria much like the modern spirochaete still encounters resistance, however.

The resistance to Margulis' work in microbiology may perhaps be explained by its implications for the more theoretical aspects of evolutionary theory. Evolutionary theorists, particularly in the English-speaking countries, have always put a particular emphasis on the notion that competition for scarce resources leads to the survival of the most well-adapted representatives of a species by natural selection, favoring adaptive genetic mutations. According to Margulis, natural selection as traditionally defined cannot account for the "creative novelty" to be found in evolutionary history. She argues instead that the primary mechanism driving biological change is symbiosis, while competition plays a secondary role.

Margulis doesn't limit her concept of symbiosis to the origin of plant and animal cells. She subscribes to the "Gaia" hypothesis first formulated by James E. Lovelock, British inventor and chemist. The "Gaia theory" (named for the Greek goddess of the earth) essentially states that all life, as well as the oceans, the atmosphere, and the earth itself are parts of a single, all-encompassing symbiosis and may fruitfully be considered as elements of a single organism.

Margulis has authored more than one hundred and thirty scientific articles and ten books, several of which are written with her son Dorion. She has also served on more than two dozen committees, including the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the MacArthur Foundation Fellowship Nominating Committee, and the editorial boards of several scientific journals. Margulis is co-director of NASA's Planetary Biology Internship Program and, in 1983, was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.

Further Reading

"The Creativity of Symbiosis," in Scientific American, Volume 266, Number 1, 1992, p. 131.

McCoy, Dan, "The Wizard of Ooze," in Omni, Volume 7, Number 49, 1985, pp. 49-78.

McDermott, Jeanne, "A Biologist Whose Heresy Redraws Earth's Tree of Life," in Smithsonian, Volume 20, Number 72, 1989, pp. 72-80.

"The Microbes' Mardi Gras," in Economist, Volume 314, Number 7643, 1990, pp. 85-86. □

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Margulis, Lynn (1938- )

Margulis, Lynn (1938- )

American biologist

Lynn Margulis is a theoretical biologist and professor of botany at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Her research on the evolutionary links between cells containing nuclei (eukaryotes ) and cells without nuclei (prokaryotes) led her to formulate a symbiotic theory of evolution that was initially spurned in the scientific community but has become more widely accepted.

Margulis, the eldest of four daughters, was born in Chicago. Her father, Morris Alexander, was a lawyer who owned a company that developed and marketed a long-lasting thermoplastic material used to mark streets and highways. He also served as an assistant state's attorney for the state of Illinois. Her mother, Leone, operated a travel agency. When Margulis was fifteen, she completed her second year at Hyde Park High School and was accepted into an early entrant program at the University of Chicago.

Margulis was particularly inspired by her science courses, in large part because reading assignments consisted not of textbooks but of the original works of the world's great scientists. A course in natural science made an immediate impression and would influence her life, raising questions that she has pursued throughout her career: What is heredity? How do genetic components influence the development of offspring? What are the common bonds between generations? While at the University of Chicago she met Carl Sagan, then a graduate student in physics. At the age of nineteen, she married Sagan, received a B.A. in liberal arts, and moved to Madison, Wisconsin, to pursue a joint master's degree in zoology and genetics at the University of Wisconsin under the guidance of noted cell biologist Hans Ris. In 1960, Margulis and Sagan moved to the University of California at Berkeley, where she conducted genetic research for her doctoral dissertation.

The marriage to Sagan ended before she received her doctorate. She moved to Waltham, Massachusetts, with her two sons, Dorion and Jeremy, to accept a position as lecturer in the department of biology at Brandeis University. She was awarded her Ph.D. in 1965. The following year, Margulis became an adjunct assistant of biology at Boston University, leaving 22 years later as full professor. In 1967, Margulis married crystallographer Thomas N. Margulis. The couple had two children before they divorced in 1980. Since 1988, Margulis has been a distinguished university professor with the Department of Botany at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

Margulis' interest in genetics and the development of cells can be traced to her earliest days as a University of Chicago undergraduate. She always questioned the commonly accepted theories of genetics, but also challenged the traditionalists by presenting hypotheses that contradicted current beliefs. Margulis has been called the most gifted theoretical biologist of her generation by numerous colleagues. A profile of Margulis by Jeanne McDermott in the Smithsonian quotes Peter Raven, director of the Missouri Botanical Garden and a MacArthur fellow: "Her mind keeps shooting off sparks. Some critics say she's off in left field. To me she's one of the most exciting, original thinkers in the whole field of biology." Although few know more about cellular biology, Margulis considers herself a "microbial evolutionist," mapping out a field of study that doesn't in fact exist.

As a graduate student, Margulis became interested in cases of non-Mendelian inheritance, occurring when the genetic make-up of a cell's descendants cannot be traced solely to the genes in a cell's nucleus . For several years, she concentrated her research on a search for genes in the cytoplasm of cells, the area outside of the cell's nucleus. In the early 1960s, Margulis presented evidence for the existence of extranuclear genes. She and other researchers had found DNA in the cytoplasm of plant cells, indicating that heredity in higher organisms is not solely determined by genetic information carried in the cell nucleus. Her continued work in this field led her to formulate the serial endosymbiotic theory, or SET, which offered a new approach to evolution as well as an account of the origin of cells with nuclei.

Prokaryotesbacteria and blue-green algae now commonly referred to as cyanobacteriaare single-celled organisms that carry genetic material in the cytoplasm. Margulis proposes that eukaryotes (cells with nuclei) evolved when different kinds of prokaryotes formed symbiotic systems to enhance their chances for survival. The first such symbiotic fusion would have taken place between fermenting bacteria and oxygen-using bacteria. All cells with nuclei, Margulis contends, are derived from bacteria that formed symbiotic relationships with other primordial bacteria some two billion years ago. It has now become widely accepted that mitochondriathose components of eukaryotic cells that process oxygenare remnants of oxygen-using bacteria. Margulis' hypothesis that cell hairs, found in a vast array of eukaryotic cells, descend from another group of primordial bacteria much like the modern spirochaete still encounters resistance, however.

The resistance to Margulis' work in microbiology may perhaps be explained by its implications for the more theoretical aspects of evolutionary theory. Evolutionary theorists, particularly in the English-speaking countries, have always put a particular emphasis on the notion that competition for scarce resources leads to the survival of the most well-adapted representatives of a species by natural selection , favoring adaptive genetic mutations . According to Margulis, natural selection as traditionally defined cannot account for the "creative novelty" to be found in evolutionary history. She argues instead that the primary mechanism driving biological change is symbiosis, while competition plays a secondary role.

Margulis doesn't limit her concept of symbiosis to the origin of plant and animal cells. She subscribes to the Gaia hypothesis first formulated by James E. Lovelock, British inventor and chemist. The Gaia theory (named for the Greek goddess of Earth) essentially states that all life, as well as the oceans, the atmosphere, and Earth itself are parts of a single, all-encompassing symbiosis and may fruitfully be considered as elements of a single organism.

Margulis has authored more than one hundred and thirty scientific articles and ten books, several of which are written with her son Dorion. She has also served on more than two dozen committees, including the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the MacArthur Foundation Fellowship Nominating Committee, and the editorial boards of several scientific journals. Margulis is co-director of NASA's Planetary Biology Internship Program and, in 1983, was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.

See also Cell cycle (eukaryotic), genetic regulation of; Cell cycle (prokaryotic), genetic regulation of; Evolution and evolutionary mechanisms; Evolutionary origin of bacteria and viruses; Microbial genetics; Microbial symbiosis

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Lynn Margulis

Lynn Margulis

1938-

American Geneticist

American geneticist Lynn Margulis is noted for her investigations of the intricate, fundamental systems by which life creates and maintains itself on Earth. She is often regarded as the co-creator, with James Lovelock (1919- ), of the Gaia hypothesis, an idea suggesting that the earth is an ecosystem, or the sum of many ecosystems.

Margulis was born in Chicago in 1938, the eldest of four daughters. At age 14 she enrolled in an undergraduate program at the University of Chicago, where she was introduced to the natural sciences. After graduating, she pursued an M.S. in zoology and genetics at the University of Wisconsin. In 1965 she received her Ph.D. in genetics from the University of California at Berkeley. In 1970 she moved to Massachusetts, where over the next 22 years she raised four children and taught at Boston University. She now teaches at the University of Massachusetts.

Margulis is considered an expert on the biological kingdom Protoctista, which includes an estimated 250,000 algae, seaweeds, amoebas, and other little known life forms. In the 1960s she began looking for DNA where no one had thought it could be found—outside the nucleus of the algae cell. She found it, and her discovery supported a revolutionary theory of symbiosis in the origin of the cell.

Margulis is also considered the co-author of the Gaia hypothesis. The Gaia hypothesis suggests that certain conditions that sustain life are regulated by life itself. More specifically, she contends, the atmosphere and all life on Earth act as a single integrated physiological system.

The strongest evidence for the Gaia hypothesis comes from the study of atmospheric chemistry. Her work in reconstructing early life on the planet revealed that bacteria produce and remove all types of atmospheric gases. The composition of the earth's atmosphere differs from our nearest neighbors, Mars and Venus. Both of these planets have carbon dioxide-rich, steady-state atmospheres that remain in equilibrium. However, our atmosphere on Earth is very different. Loaded with reactive gases, our atmosphere contains oxygen, nitrogen, and methane, among others, which are violently reactive to one another. There is no way to explain this by chemistry alone.

James Lovelock, a British atmospheric chemist, felt that the presence of reactive gases is evidence that atmospheric gases on Earth are actively regulated. Margulis agreed and suggested the atmosphere is an extension of life itself. If the surface of Earth were not covered with oxygen-emitting algae and plants, methane producing bacteria, hydrogen-producing fermenters, and countless other life forms, its atmosphere would long ago have reached the same steady state of Mars and Venus.

Magulis suggests that another argument for Gaia comes from the study of astronomy. According to accepted models, the sun is 30 to 70 percent hotter today than it was in the early days of the earth's history. If the earth's temperature was consistent with this increase in solar radiation, we would now be at a boiling point. However, the temperature of Earth has remained stable and conducive to life for all of this time. She concludes that growing populations of gas-producing organisms have actively maintained surface temperatures within a range suitable for life.

Ultimately, Margulis notes, "it doesn't matter whether the Gaia hypotheses is supported or not." The fact that it has generated new thoughts and new work is the best evidence of its value. She also points out that although soil erosion, loss of nutrients, methane production, ozone depletion, deforestation, and the loss of species diversification may all be Gaian processes, our human habits and behaviors have accentuated them to the point of near catastrophe. It is possible that our lack of environmental policies and our overpopulation will stress the system to such an extent that the earth will roll over into another steady-state regime, which may or may not include human life.

LESLIE HUTCHINSON

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