Paul von Hindenburg
Paul Ludwig Hans von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg
Paul Ludwig Hans von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg
The German field marshal and statesman Paul Ludwig Hans von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg (1847-1934) commanded the German forces during the last 2 years of World War I. He was president of Germany from 1925 to 1934.
Paul von Hindenburg was one of the last prominent representatives of the old Prussian Junkerdom— once the mainstay of Prussia's military power and its honest and efficient civil service—and he profoundly shared its values of honor, duty, and total dedication to the state. As president during the critical years of the Depression, he also symbolized the curious inability of the old Prussian aristocrats to deal with the barbaric nationalism and reckless militarism of Hitler's national socialism.
Hindenburg was born in Posen (now Poznań, Poland) on Oct. 2, 1847, to a family of old Junker stock. Trained in the Prussian Cadet Corps, he fought bravely in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870), earning a citation for bravery and the Iron Cross.
Never a man of outstanding strategic or tactical talents, Hindenburg made his mark as a hardworking, loyal, and dedicated soldier. His sincerity and noble bearing earned him the respect of both superiors and subordinates and assured him of a steady rise through the ranks in the long years of peace after 1871. By 1904 he had become commanding general of the IV Army Corps, a post he held until his retirement in 1911.
As an experienced officer, Hindenburg was recalled to active duty shortly after the outbreak of World War I and sent to command the 8th Army on the Eastern front with the extremely talented but highly temperamental Erich Ludendorff as his chief of staff. On the morning after its arrival on the front, the new command team commenced the Battle of Tannenburg (August 26-29), which resulted in the most decisive German victory on the Eastern front and made its official victors, Hindenburg and Ludendorff, into almost legendary German heroes. In this battle the German forces virtually annihilated a Russian army twice the size of the German detachment and cleared East Prussian territory for the balance of the war. By November 1914 Hindenburg had advanced to supreme commander in the east with the rank of field marshal.
When the German armies were increasingly driven into the defensive on the decisive Western front in the summer of 1916, Hindenburg was made chief of general staff, with Ludendorff at his side as chief of operations. Thus Hindenburg and Ludendorff—with the latter always in the driver's position—increasingly determined the direction of German politics. Their policy consisted primarily of a stubborn, increasingly suicidal insistence on an all-out military effort and sizable annexations and a wooden resistance to all reforms at home. For the German military fortunes, however, even the unification of the supreme command of the Central Powers under Hindenburg and desperate all-out offensives in the west were not enough. By the summer of 1918 German offensive strength had run out, and an Allied counteroffensive, reinforced by fresh American troops, threatened to carry the war into Germany.
The subsequent surrender did not diminish Hindenburg's prestige, however. He prepared what he believed to be the temporary resignation of the emperor, William II, to make an armistice possible. He gained the lasting gratitude of his nation by bringing every German soldier across the armistice line along the Rhine before the deadline set by the Allies. Only after the signing of the Peace Treaty of Versailles did he finally lay down his command—still the most popular public figure in Germany.
Years as President
After the first president of the postwar republic died in 1925, Marshal Hindenburg was nominated by the parties of the right and was elected with a slight plurality over the candidate of the center and moderate left. Although he continued to hope for a return of his beloved monarchy, he loyally supported the various governments of the republic in the 1920s.
An abrupt shift in Hindenburg's position took place with the outbreak of the Depression and the subsequent breakdown of majority coalition governments in the German Parliament. Under an emergency paragraph in the constitution, he now supported Chancellor Heinrich Brüning's government of the center against the combined antirepublican majority of Nazis and Communists. Widely regarded as the last bulwark against Hitler, the 82-year-old war hero was reelected with the support of the center-left parties in the spring of 1932.
Hindenburg soon turned against Brüning, however, because of a moderate land reform thought disadvantageous to Hindenburg's fellow landed aristocrats. He replaced this last genuinely republican chancellor with Franz von Papen and then Kurt von Schleicher, both personal friends. Finally, on Jan. 30, 1933, he overcame his initial dislike and distrust of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and appointed him to the chancellorship, thereby inaugurating 12 years of Nazi dictatorship.
Failing in health, Hindenburg increasingly lost control over the radicalization and terrorization of German politics. In March 1933 he symbolically presided over the opening of Hitler's newly purged Reichstag and in the following year had to tolerate the army purges accompanying the infamous Roehm Purge. On Aug. 2, 1934, Paul von Hindenburg died at Neudeck, a broken man. His death removed the last restraints on Hitler.
Hindenburg's early autobiography, Out of My Life (1920), was translated by F. A. Holt (1933). Of the many biographies of Hindenburg, mostly by admirers, the best in English are John W. Wheeler-Bennett, Wooden Titan: Hindenburg in Twenty Years of German History, 1914-1934 (1936; republished as Hindenburg: The Wooden Titan, 1967), a full biography, and Andreas Dorpalen, Hindenburg and the Weimar Republic (1964), which is limited to the time of the republic. Margaret Goldsmith and Frederick Voigt, Hindenburg: The Man and the Legend (1930), is a generally favorable, scholarly account. Emil Ludwig, Hindenburg (trans. 1935), is popularized but is an accurate appraisal. Recommended for general historical background are Walter Görlitz, The German General Staff: Its Historical Structure, 1657-1945 (1950; trans. 1953); Gordon A. Craig, The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1640-1945 (1955); and Erich Eyck, A History of the Weimar Republic (trans., 2 vols., 1962-1963). □
Hindenburg, Paul von
Paul von Hindenburg (hĬn´dənbûrg, Ger. poul fən hĬn´dənbŏŏrk), 1847–1934, German field marshal and president (1925–34), b. Poznan (then in Prussia). His full name was Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Hindenburg und Beneckendorff. He fought in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) and was appointed (1878) to the general staff. Though retired after 1911, he was made commander in East Prussia early in World War I. General Ludendorff, who was his chief of staff throughout the war, was the real author of Hindenburg's victories. Victory in the battle of Tannenberg (Aug., 1914) over a much larger Russian force was followed (1914–15) by German occupation of Poland and part of the Baltic provinces. As commander in chief of the German armies in the East from Sept., 1914, Hindenburg's prestige was greatly enhanced by these victories. In 1916, Hindenburg, by then a field marshal, succeeded General Falkenhayn as commander of all German armies; Ludendorff was made quartermaster general. Subsequently, the two men became virtual dictators of Germany, intervening in civilian affairs, regulating labor, and mobilizing the rest of the economy for total warfare. In the military sphere they stemmed the Allied advance in the West and consolidated the Hindenburg Line, running roughly from Lens through Saint-Quentin to Reims. Romania was crushed, and Russia withdrew from the war (1917). From March to July, 1918, Hindenburg launched a costly offensive into France, but the Allied counteroffensive, spearheaded by fresh American troops, led to the German defeat and surrender. Although Ludendorff was forced to resign in Oct., 1918, Hindenburg remained in office. After the overthrow of the emperor (November), Hindenburg and the army swore an oath of allegiance to the republican government. Although Hindenburg was to be tried as a war criminal under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the special German court at Leipzig never even indicted him. After the death of the German president Freidrich Ebert in 1925, Hindenburg was persuaded to run for the office by a coalition of nationalists, Prussian Junkers, and other conservative groups. As president, his powers were very limited. In 1932 he was reelected with the help of his chancellor, Heinrich Brüning. Shortly after the election, at the instigation of his advisers, Hindenburg dismissed Brüning. Finally, in Jan., 1933, the nearly senile president, fearing civil war, gave in to his advisers and appointed Adolf Hitler chancellor. Hindenburg continued as a figurehead until his death.
See J. W. Wheeler-Bennett, The Wooden Titan (1936, repr. 1967), A. Dorpalen, Hindenburg and the Weimar Republic (1964).
Hindenburg, Paul Von
Appointed chief of the General Staff in August 1916, Hindenburg was over his head as the supreme commander of a total war effort in a state already stumbling from exhaustion. He lent his name and prestige to a series of fumbling, even disastrous, policies. He supported the increasingly unrealistic war aims of the militarists and nationalists. Yet, at the end, he did facilitate acceptance of the kaiser's abdication, the establishment of the Weimar Republic, and the armistice, and he remained a hero. Elected president of the Weimar Republic in 1925 by a coalition of conservatives and nationalists, Hindenburg initially performed his limited duties loyally and with the same success. The Great Depression, the rise of National Socialism, and his own advancing age, however, reduced his effectiveness. Reelected in 1932 and fearing civil war, the nearly senile president appointed Adolf Hitler as chancellor in January 1933, and thereafter remained a figurehead until his death in 1934.
[See also Ludendorff, Erich; World War I: Causes.]
Andreas Dorpalen , Hindenburg and the Weimar Republic, 1964.
Martin Kitchen , The Silent Dictatorship: The Politics of the High Command under Hindenburg and Ludendorff, 1916–1918, 1976.
Dennis E. Showalter