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Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of

Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of (1443–1524). Norfolk had a remarkable political and military career at the highest level, despite a bad start. His father was a prominent Yorkist, who fought at Towton, was created duke by Richard III, and died fighting at his side at Bosworth. The son was wounded at Barnet in 1471 and taken prisoner at Bosworth. He spent some years in the Tower before Henry VII restored his title as earl of Surrey and in 1489 made him chief justice in Eyre north of Trent, with heavy law and order responsibilities. From 1501 to 1522 he was lord high treasurer. In 1510 Henry VIII made him earl marshal for life and in 1513 he annihilated the Scots at the battle of Flodden, showing himself a capable and determined commander, even at 70. His reward was the dukedom of Norfolk. In the king's absence in France at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520, Norfolk acted as guardian of England. For a man who started on the wrong side, this was a crowning achievement.

J. A. Cannon

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Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 2d duke of

Thomas Howard Norfolk, 2d duke of, 1443–1524, English nobleman, son of John Howard, 1st duke of Norfolk. He fought at the battle of Bosworth (1485) in which his father was killed. He himself was captured, attainted, and placed in the Tower of London. He was released (1489) by Henry VII and restored to the earldom of Surrey, which he had received in 1483, but not to the dukedom of Norfolk. He was entrusted by Henry VII with the care of the northern borders and in 1501 was made lord treasurer. Recognized as the leading general in England, he commanded the army that defeated (1513) the Scots at Flodden and was created (1514) duke of Norfolk. Although an influential member of Henry VIII's privy council, he was gradually forced to relinquish much of his power to the ascending Thomas Wolsey. He served as guardian of the realm during Henry's absence in 1520. In 1521, acting as lord high steward, he was compelled to sentence his friend Edward Stafford, 3d duke of Buckingham, to death.

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