Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of

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Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of (1473–1554). Norfolk picked a precarious path through the hazards of Tudor politics. He was closely related to the royal family. His first wife was a daughter of Edward IV; his second wife's grandmother was sister to Edward IV's queen; he was uncle to both Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. He was given the Garter in 1510 and after fighting under his father at the great victory of Flodden was created earl of Surrey when his father was made duke of Norfolk. From 1513 to 1525 he served as lord high admiral, was lord-lieutenant of Ireland 1520–2 and lord high treasurer 1522–47. He helped to bring down Wolsey and in 1534 presided over the trial of his niece Anne Boleyn. In 1537 he put down the rising of the Pilgrimage of Grace with severity. In 1540 he succeeded in ousting Thomas Cromwell. The disgrace of Catherine Howard rocked his position but he survived and held commands against the French and the Scots. The imprudence of his son Lord Surrey, in sporting the royal arms, brought a conviction for treason in 1546 and Norfolk escaped execution only because Henry VIII died. Throughout Edward VI's reign, Norfolk remained in the Tower but, as a catholic, was released by Mary, restored to his honours, and served against Wyatt's rebellion in January 1554, which was defeated largely by the zeal of his half-brother Lord William Howard. He died the same year at the age of 80.

J. A. Cannon

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Thomas Howard 3d duke of Norfolk

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