The largest independent Christian movement in Black Africa. It derives from Simon Kimbangu (1889–1951), a Baptist
mission catechist, whose preaching and healing in the lower Congo started a mass movement in 1921. His subsequent death-sentence for alleged sedition was commuted to life imprisonment, after British Baptist
missionaries had appealed to the Belgian king. The new movement continued underground, despite mass deportations by the colonial government. In 1957 it secured toleration and in 1959 legal recognition as Église de Jésus-Christ sur la Terre par le Prophète Simon Kimbangu (EJCSK, The Church
of Jesus Christ through the Prophet Simon Kimbangu), under the leadership of Kimbangu's son, Joseph Diangienda (b. 1918). N'kamba, Kimbangu's birthplace and final burial place, is a pilgrimage centre. There have been secessions and other Kimbanguist groups with different emphases, but all look to Simon Kimbangu as an idealized founder and martyr figure.
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