Archbishop of Canterbury; b. probably Langham, Rutlandshire, England; d. Avignon, July 22, 1376. By 1339–40 he was a monk of Westminster Abbey, and from 1346 to 1348 he studied at Oxford. He was elected prior and then abbot of Westminster in the spring of 1349, the year of the Black Death. His economic skill was quickly shown by his reorganization of the abbey's finances, which was so successful that he was able to rebuild the cloisters. In 1360 Edward III appointed him treasurer of England. Elected bishop of ely in 1361 he refused to change to London, to which he was also elected in the same year. Soon he was appointed chancellor of England (1363), an office he resigned in 1366 on his election to Canterbury, but not before he had begun the custom whereby the chancellor's speech at the opening of Parliament is delivered in English. As primate of England, Langham introduced legislation against pluralism, though ironically he was to become an extreme exponent of it. He removed wyclif from the headship of Canterbury Hall, Oxford. Since Langham had offended the king by accepting the title of cardinal priest in 1368 without the king's permission, he resigned his archbishopric and became a leading diplomat of the avignon papacy. He was rewarded with many preferments in England and the title of cardinal bishop of Palestrina (1373). By the time of his death he had accumulated books, plate, and ornament calculated as equivalent to $840,000 in 1955 currency (Knowles). He left everything to Westminster Abbey, hence his title as the second founder of the abbey and his remarkable tomb designed by Henry Yevele.
Bibliography: a. b. emden, A Biographical Register of the University of Oxford to A.D. 1500 2:1095–97. j. a. robinson, "S.L., Abbot of Westminster," Church Quarterly Review 66 (1908) 339–366. d. knowles, The Religious Orders in England 2:54–56. c. l. kingsford, The Dictionary of National Biography from the Earliest Times to 1900 11:540–541. m. mckisack, The Fourteenth Century, 1307–1399 (Oxford 1959).
"Simon Langham." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 19, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/simon-langham
"Simon Langham." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved November 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/simon-langham
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.