James II

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James II (1633–1701) King of England (1685–88), second son of Charles I, brother of Charles II. Following the English Civil War, James fought for the French and Spanish, before returning as lord high admiral after the Restoration (1660). He converted to Roman Catholicism (1669) and was forced to resign all his offices. As king, James was confronted by Monmouth's Rebellion (1685). His pro-Catholic policies inflamed popular opinion and the birth of a son, James Stuart, precipitated the Glorious Revolution. His daughter, Mary II, and her husband, William III (of Orange), acceded to the throne, and James was forced to flee to France. With French aid, James invaded Ireland but was defeated by William at the battle of the Boyne (1690). See also Jacobites

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James II (England)

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