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MULTILINGUALISM. The ability to use three or more languages, either separately or in various degrees of CODE-MIXING. There is no general agreement as to the degree of competence in each language necessary before someone can be considered multilingual; according to some, a native-like fluency is necessary in at least three languages; according to others, different languages are used for different purposes, competence in each varying according to such factors as REGISTER, occupation, and education. Where an individual has been exposed to several languages, as for example in India, Nigeria, or Singapore, one language may be used in the home, another professionally, another passively for listening or reading, another spoken but not written or read, and so forth. See BILINGUALISM, LANGUAGE PLANNING, LINGUAL, MULTICULTURALISM.
multilingual •Ethel • lethal • brothel • betrothal •Cavell, cavil, gavel, gravel, ravel, travel •Havel, larval, marvel, Marvell, rondavel •bedevil, bevel, devil, dishevel, kevel, level, revel, split-level •daredevil • she-devil • eye level •naval, navel •coeval, evil, Khedival, medieval, primeval, retrieval, shrieval, upheaval •civil, drivel, shrivel, snivel, swivel •carnival • Percival • perspectival •festival • aestival (US estival) •adjectival, arrival, deprival, genitival, imperatival, infinitival, outrival, relatival, revival, rival, substantival, survival •archival •grovel, hovel, novel •oval •approval, removal •Lovell, shovel •interval • serval • narwhal •coequal, equal, prequel, sequel •bilingual, lingual, monolingual, multilingual •rorqual • Hywel •Daniel, spaniel
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